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Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.'
And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them : then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.'
1. 104. quarry, an object aimed at. The game which a hawk fies at is its quarry. In Annus Mirabilis, stanza 281, the buildings to which the fire was directing itself in the great conflagration of 1666 are called their quarry :
The flames that to their quarry strove.' 1. 128. bilanders, coasting vessels used in Holland and there so called. The French adopted the word bilandre, also from the Dutch. 11. 134, 135. Could He his Godhead veil with flesh and blood
And not veil these again to be our food ? This pleading of Dryden in 1687 for the doctrine of Transubstantiation may be compared with his ridicule of the same doctrine in 1681, in Absalom and Achitophel, 120:
*Such savoury deities must needs be good,
As served at once for worship and for food.' 1. 153. the insatiate Wolf, the Presbyterian. Dryden here turns suddenly to the Presbyterian, in bidding good-bye to the Arians and Socinians, both comprehended under Reynard the Fox, now denounced by him as ' first apostate to divinity:
1. 165. The Presbyterians in the time of the Commonwealth wore black skull-caps, which left their ears uncovered ; and their hair being close cropped all round, their ears were prominent. The ragged tail betwixt his legs' was the Presbyterian's Geneva cloak.
1. 166. haggered, a way of spelling the word haggard, and Dryden's usual spelling. But in Part iii. line 1166 of this poem, it is spelt haggared.
1. 170. Nothing can be more ribald and offensive than the account of the Presbyterians and their genealogy which follows. Scott interprets the reference to Cambria as pointing to the refusal of the ancient British Church in the seventh century, the monks of Bangor being prominently zealous, to acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope, and admit St. Augustin as metropolitan of Britain by Pope Gregory's appointment. Ethelred, the Saxon king of Northumberland, defeated the British at Chester, and cut to pieces twelve hundred of the monks of Bangor, who had come to assist their countrymen with their prayers. It is however more probable that Dryden in his vituperative vein mixes up the extinction of wolves in Wales by the tribute of wolves' heads imposed on the kings, with the history of British Presbyterians, to whom he has given the name of wolves, and then he saggests that the Presbyterians of his day are of an inferior race to Wickliff's brood'—the Lollards, cruelly persecuted in the reign of Henry V.
1. 180. Zuinglius began to preach the Reformation in Zurich about 1518. He was killed in 1531 in a war between the canton of Zurich and four Roman Catholic cantons.
l. 181. Calvin, having been expelled from France for preaching the doctrines of the Reformation, went to Geneva, where he was appointed Professor of Divinity in 1536. He afterwards left Geneva and taught a French congregation at Strasburg.
1. 183. Sanhedrim; spelt Sanhedrin by Dryden in Absalom and Achitophel. As in Absalom and Achitophel, ll. 390, 878 Sanhedrin means Parliament. The latter spelling connects the name with the Greek ovvédpov. Dryden has a note on this line 183, · Vide Preface to Heylyn's History of Presbyterians. The passage of Heylyn which he refers to is the following :-'I know that some out of pure zeal with the cause would fain entitle them (the Presbyterians] to a descent from the Jewish Sanhedrim ordained by God himself in the time of Moses. And that it might comply the better with these ends and purposes, they have endeavoured to make that famous consistory of the seventy elders not only a co-ordinate power with that of Moses, and after his decease with the kings and princes of that state in the public government, but a power paramount and supreme, from which lay no appeal to any but to God himself; a power by which they were enabled not only to control the actions of their kings and princes, but also to correct their persons.' Heylyn proceeds : 'And yet I shall not yield them an antiquity as great as that which they desire, as great as that of Moses or the Jewish Sanhedrim, from which they would so willingly derive themselves.'
1. 187. dewest, the spelling of the time for the word divest now in use, which is clearly a corruption of language. The literal meaning is 'to take clothes off,' and de is the proper prefix.
1. 189. Korah and the sons of Levi, who rebelled and were all swallowed up in a pit which opened in the earth, are here compared to a Presbyterian 'class'; classis, order.
1. 190. The Fox, the Arian, already spoken of as 'false Reynard.'
1. 204. The native kennel small' and 'bounded betwixt a puddle and a wall,' is Dryden's contemptuous description of Geneva, the puddle being the great and beautiful lake Leman.
1. 211. This line occurs in Absalom and Achitophel, 227, where see the note. *1. 212. Compare Shakespeare, Tempest, Act v. Sc. 1:
You demipuppets that
Whereof the ewe not bites.' 1. 235. The wolfish crew'chased from .Celtic woods' are the French Protestants driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685. The contemptuous tone of this passage is in marked contrast with the allusion to the persecution of the French Huguenots in the Preface.
* l. 284. the blessed Pan, Jesus Christ. In Part ii. line 711, Christ is again spoken of as 'mighty Pan.' Compare Milton's Hymn on Christ's Nativity:
• The shepherds on the lawn
Sate simply chatting in a rustic row;
Was kindly come to live with them below.' Milton followed Spenser, who, in the glossary to the Shepherd's Calendar for May, explains 'great Pan,' mentioned in the poem, to be Christ the very God of all shepherds. . . The name is most rightly, methinks, applied to him, for Pan signifieth all or omnipotent, which is only the Lord Jesus.'
1. 288. This and the two following lines were probably added by Dryden after the publication of the Declaration of Indulgence.
1. 290. for their foes. Broughton substituted from for for, thus making the line nonsense, but his mistake has been adopted by succeeding editors, including Scott.
1. 319. divisible, material; divisibility being a criterion of matter.
1. 322. Such souls as shards produce. The probable meaning of shard here is dung or ordure. The word does not occur again in this sense in Dryden. In his translation of the Second Epode of Horace, he uses shard for an edible plant:
Not heathpout or the rarer bird
That keep the loosened body sound.' Some are of opinion that shard has the meaning 'dung' in the passage in Macbeth, Act iii. Sc. 2 :
“The shard-borne beetle with her drowsy hums.' This word would mean in that case 'born of dung'; the spelling born or borne is immaterial. There is a beetle called the 'turd-bug' (Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words) or 'dung-beetle.' Most commentators interpret shard-borne as meaning borne or carried by shards, the hard wing-cases of the beetle. Shard or sherd means in old writers the hard scale of an animal; and it might mean the mail of a beetle, but there is a gap between the mail-covering of a wing and the wing itself. Gower says of a dragon that his 'sherdes shyne as the sonne' (Confessio Amantis, 1. vi), and describes a serpent,
He was so sherdid all aboute
It held all edge tools withoute. Id. I. v. These passages do not explain shard-borne ; but they may explain sharded beetle' in Cymbeline, Act iii. Sc. 2 :
And often, to our comfort, shall we find
Than is the full-winged eagle.' Sharded may here mean .mail-clad,' but it may also mean' dunged' or •dunging,'charded being sharding (a not uncommon use in Shakespeare of the past participle termination). In Antony and Cleopatra (Act iii. Sc. 2), Lepidus is described by Ænobarbus as hovering and gloating with praise equally over Cæsar and Antony:
•They are his shards and he their beetle.' The meaning of 'dung' for shard would be very appropriate here. The commentators generally explain shards as the beetle's two wing cases, but how can they be separated from the beetle? There is a fourth passage in Shakespeare where shard occurs, where the meaning may be different. In Hamlet (Act v. Sc. 1) the priest says that Ophelia deserved that
Shards, Aints, and pebbles should be thrown on her.' Shards here means broken pieces or fragments of pottery: it is the word sherd of the translation of the Bible: 'And he shall break it as the breaking of the potter's vessel that is broken to pieces; he shall not spare : so that there shall not be found in the bursting of it a sherd to take fire from the hearth.” (Isaiah xxx. 14.) And again in Ezekiel xxiii. 34: “Thou shalt break the sherds' of the cup. This sherd (A. S. sceard, a fragment) is preserved in potsherd, fragment of a pot, which occurs, so spelt, in Dryden. Mr. Browning has written in The Ring and the Book :
"By the roadside, mid ordure, shards, and weeds.' 1. 327. The Panther, the Church of England. 11. 339, 340. Compare with this couplet Juvenal, Sat. xiii. 209:
Nam scelus intra se tacitum qui cogitat ullum,
Facti crimen habet.' 1. 354. 'Conjugium vocat, hoc praetexit nomine culpam.'
Virg. Aen. iv. 172. Henry VIII's divorce from Catharine and marriage with Anne Boleyn are here referred to, as leading to the abolition of the papal authority in England.
1. 369. Here Dryden refers to the removal of the restriction of celibacy for priests.
1. 371. hattered out, wearied out. The word occurs in Ogilby's
translation of the Iliad, p. 500, 1669. Jamieson, in his Scottish Dictionary, quotes from Gavan and Gob, iii. 5, `Helmys of hard steill their hatterit and heuch.'
1. 385. I have preserved here the spelling of the original edition, travailing. This was the common spelling for the two meanings, journey' (now spelt travel) and labour.' See Part iii. line 411.
1. 388. presumed of praise. A common Gallicism with Dryden : it occurs again in Part iii. line 511.
1. 391. This line has been spoilt by Derrick and most subsequent editors, including Scott, by changing The into Their. herds here means "shepherds.'
1. 399. phylacteries. The accent is on the third syllable, the e being long in Greek, pulakthplov.
1. 409. Derrick and a few other editors have spoilt this line by changing reformed into deformed:
And least deformed, because deformed the least,' which is simple nonsense.
11. 317-430. Dryden here criticises the Article of the Church of England on the Eucharist, Art. xxviii : "The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another, but rather it is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ's death; insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the body of Christ. ..... The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten, in the Supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is faith.'
1. 442. Alluding to the practice of 'suttee,' i.e. the voluntary selfimmolation of Hindu widows on the funeral pile of their husbands.
1. 446. Resolved here means dissolved. It is similarly used in Dryden's Eleanora, 229 :
Goodness resolved into necessity.' 1. 449. Isgrim's. Dryden has a note on this word, “The Wolf.' It is the name given to the wolf in the old German fable of Reynard the Fox. This is ridiculed in Montague and Prior's parody. Bayes says: "Take it from me, Mr. Smith, there is as good morality, and as sound precepts in the delectable History of Reynard the Fox, as in any book I know, except Seneca ; pray tell me where, in any other author, could I have found so pretty a name for a wolf as Isgrim?' But Dryden had Beaumont and Fletcher's example:
'Isgrim himself in all his bloody anger
Beggar's Bush, Act iii. Sc. 4. 11. 460-465. Compare The Medal, 11. 156–166.