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and o'er-informing the tenement of clay. 'He (the Duke of Alva) was one of a lean body and visage, as if his eager soul, biting for anger at the clay of his body, desired to fret a passage through it.' (Fuller's Profane State.)
'The purest soul that e'er was sent
Into a clayey tenement.' Carew. 1. 163. Great wits, &c. 'Nullum fit magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae.' (Seneca, De Tranq. Anim. C. xv. s. 77.)
1. 167. The same idea of ill-usage of Shaftesbury's little body by his active mind appears in a sketch of him in Mulgrave's Essay on Satire, which was erroneously ascribed to Dryden :
* As by our little Machiavel we find
That nimblest creature of the busy kind:
To use a body thus, though 'tis one's own.' The Essay on Satire is said to have been written in 1675: it was first circulated in manuscript in 1679. Duke, a friend and imitator of Dryden, has described Shaftesbury in his poem called “The Review,' and some of his lines bear traces of Dryden's descriptions here and in The Medal :
• Antonius, early in rebellious race
The working ferment of his active mind,
But that 'tis tapt to give the treason vent.' The last line is an unseemly allusion to an abscess from which Shaftesbury suffered, originally caused by a fall from a carriage, when he went out to meet King Charles at Breda on the eve of the Restoration. The abscess, which was internal, at one time endangered his life. A severe
operation restored him to health, which was afterwards preserved by means of a silver pipe which kept the wound always open.
1. 170. unfeathered two-legged thing. Dryden has here appropriated for ribaldry Plato's humorous definition of man, a two-footed animal without wings, [wov dimovv antepov. Shaftesbury's son was a man of no ability, but was the father of an able man, the third Earl, the metaphysician, author of the Characteristics. Shaftesbury was three times married, but had only two children, sons, by his second wife, Lady Frances Cecil, who died in 1653: one of the two died in infancy.
1. 175. the triple bond. The triple alliance of England, Holland, and Sweden of 1667, directed against France. In June 1670, a second treaty, of which Shaftesbury, though at the time a prominent minister, knew nothing, was made with France for war against Holland and the establishment of the Roman Catholic religion in England. The English commissioners who signed this treaty were Arlington, Clifford, Lord Arundel of Wardour, and Sir Richard Bellings; the last two were not ministers. Another treaty was afterwards concluded on December 31, in appearance solely for alliance with France and war against Holland, and this was signed by Buckingham, Shaftesbury (then Lord Ashley), and Lauderdale, together with Arlington and Clifford. But Charles's engagement about the Roman Catholic religion in the treaty of June remained binding; and that treaty was a secret from Buckingham, Shaftesbury, and Lauderdale. Shaftesbury has his share of responsibility for a treaty of alliance with France for a war against Holland. But no one was louder at the time for this war and for the French alliance than Dryden, who wrote in 1673 a bad play, Amboyna, for the express purpose of inflaming the English public against the Dutch. He there proclaimed the alliance of the two kings of England and France to be necessary to destroy the pride of Holland :
• Yet is their empire no true growth, but humour,
And only two kings' touch can cure the tumour.' These two lines are from Dryden's Epilogue to Amboyna, and the Epilogue concludes with a reference to Cato's 'Delenda est Carthago,' quoted by Shaftesbury in his speech for the King as Chancellor to Parliament in February 1673. Dryden perhaps derived the idea. from Shaftesbury's famous speech,
All loyal English will like him conclude,
Let Cæsar live, and Carthage be subdued.' The play of Amboyna was dedicated to Lord Clifford, a friend and patron of Dryden, with fulsome praises of Clifford as a statesman. Yet Dryden in 1681 could revile Shaftesbury for breaking the triple bond' and fitting Israel for a foreign yoke. He repeats the accusation a few, months after in The Medal :
• Thus framed for ill, he loosed our triple hold-
But he by art our native strength betrayed.' This is a flagrant example of Dryden's reckless inconsistency and unscrupulousness in attack. 1. 179. Assumed in first edition instead of Usurped.
all-atoning, all-reconciling. The verb atone was used differently in Dryden's time from its present use. It meant to 'harmonize,'' unite,' and was used transitively. Thus in Dryden's Poem on the Coronation, 57 :
He that brought peace and discord could atone,
His name is music of itself alone.' • To atone her anger' (Love Triumphant, Act iv. Sc. 1), •To atone the people' (Vindication of Duke of Guise). Atone was sometimes wrongly spelt attone, the origin of the word being at one, 'to make at one' (See New English Dictionary). Atone is used similarly in Shakespeare : 'I would do much to atone them for the love I bear to Cassio’ (Othello, Act iv. Sc. I).
• Since we cannot atone you, we shall see
King Richard II, Act i. Sc. 1. Elsewhere in Shakespeare atone is used intransitively, meaning to agree,' as in Coriolanus, Act iv. Sc. () :
*He and Aufidius can no more atone
Than violentest contrariety.' 11. 180–191. These twelve lines were added in the second edition of the poem. A very absurd story has been told, that these lines, containing high praise of Shaftesbury as a Judge, were added by Dryden in gratitude for the gift of a nomination to the Charterhouse School for his third son, Erasmus, by Shaftesbury, after the publication of Absalom and Achitophel. The story was first published in Kippis's edition of the Biographia Britannica, published in 1779. Malone took great pains to refute this very improbable story. Dryden's son Erasmus was admitted to the Charterhouse in February 1683, on a nomination from the King. The first edition of this poem appeared in November, and the second in December, 1681. The story is simply impossible. Immediately after the publication of Absalom and Achitophel, Shaftesbury could not have abased himself by offering a favour to Dryden, even if Dryden
were likely to accept it; and then in a few months, in March, 1682, Dryden published The Medal, a yet more savage attack on his supposed forgiving benefactor. After all, the idea of praising Shaftesbury as a Judge is in the lines 192–7, which were in the first edition. Why so much praise was added in the second edition may be variously explained. Dryden may have thought that further explanation was necessary for connecting the passage beginning in line 192,
“Oh! had he been content to serve the crown, with the preceding denunciation of Shaftesbury as a politician. Or he may have thought that higher praise of him as a Judge might increase by contrast the effect of his abuse of the statesman. Or, as Shaftesbury had in the interval been acquitted of the charge of high treason and had triumphed over his enemies, Dryden may have wished to say something conciliatory for one whom he had so fiercely attacked, and who might now again become formidable.
1. 188. Abbethdin, the president of the Jewish judicature. The word is compounded of ab, “father,' and beth-din, 'house of judgment,' and means literally "father of the house of judgment.'
1. 196. What is meant by David's tuning his harp for Achitophel if he had been other than he was, and its then resulting that · Heaven had wanted one immortal song,' probably is this, that David would then have addressed a song to Achitophel instead of a lament to Heaven. I have otherwise interpreted the passage in a note in the Globe Edition, there representing the line, ‘And Heaven had wanted one immortal song,' as meaning that Dryden's own poem would then have been lost to Heaven ; which would be a very arrogant boast. But I believe now that this was a wrong interpretation. David as usual means Charles II; the harp is introduced again in 11. 439, 440.
1. 197. wanted. want is here used in a simple sense no longer current, except provincially, 'to be without.' It occurs in the same sense in Pope :
• Friend of my life, which did not you prolong,
Prologue to Satires, 27. 1. 198. Lord Macaulay, in his Essay on Sir William Temple, pointed out the probable origin of this couplet, in some verses in Knolles's History of the Turks :
'Greatness on goodness loves to slide, not stand,
And leaves for Fortune's ice Virtue's firm land.' 1. 204. manifest of crimes, an imitation of Sallust’s ‘Manifestus tanti sceleris’ (Jugurtha, 39). Dryden uses the same idiom in Palamon and Arcite, Bk. i. 623 :
Calisto there stood manifest of shame.'
1. 209. The charge against Shaftesbury of making circumstances of the alleged Popish Plot is totally without proof, and against all probability. Shaftesbury entirely believed in the Plot, as did many others of calmer temperament and high character : one of these was the virtuous Lord Russell. Shaftesbury and Russell were entirely at one in the prosecution of the plot. Bishop Burnet, who disliked Shaftesbury, and blamed him for his vehemence, acquits him of invention. (Hist. of Own Time, ii. 168.)
1. 213. To prove the King a Jebusite' was no calumnious attempt of Shaftesbury. Charles is suspected to have been a Roman Catholic before the Restoration, and in indiscreet private talk he frequently betrayed. the sentiments of his heart. Burnet and Lord Halifax (in his .Character of Charles the Second') both assume that he was a Roman Catholic.
1. 219. The accent is on the second syllable of instinct, according to the pronunciation of the time. So again in line 535.
1. 227. This line is reproduced by Dryden in The Hind and the Panther, Part i. 211. In one of the poems in Lacrymæ Musarum, occasioned by the death of Lord Hastings in 1649, to which collection Dryden contributed his first known poem, the following couplet occurs :
It is decreed we must be drained, I see,
Down to the dregs of a democracy.' The phrase was probably early impressed on Dryden from this poem.
1. 235. Shuts up in first edition, instead of Divides.
1. 247. Like one of virtue's fools that feeds on praise. Scott and most editors wrongly print feed. *1. 252. Compare Shakespeare, Julius Cæsar, Act iv. Sc. 3:
“There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.' 11. 270–273. Compare Astræa Redux, l. 276.
1. 280. Naked of is a Gallicism. Dryden uses dry in the same way. • Dry of pleasure' (Love Triumphant, Act iii. Sc. 1), ‘Dry of those embraces' (Amphitryon, Act iii. Sc. I).
1. 291. the general cry. Scott and most editors wrongly print royal for loyal.
1. 318. mankind's delight. “Amor atque deliciae generis humani,' said by Suetonius of the Emperor Titus.
* l. 328. Compare Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Act iv. Sc. 1, on the quality of mercy ... 'It is an attribute to God himself.'
11. 353-360. This elaborate eulogy on Charles's brother, James Duke of York, may be compared with Dryden's characters of James in the play The Duke of Guise, produced in 1682, and in the Threnodia Au