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after the defeat of Charles at Worcester, in the complete subjugation of Scotland.

* 17.3. Burnet describes Scotland as flourishing under Cromwell's rule. “There was good justice done, and vice was suppressed and punished ; so that we always reckon those eight years of usurpation a time of great peace and prosperity' (Own Time).

* 18. 1. stars. Probably Dryden refers to the appearances known as 'corposants' or 'composants,' and sometimes called 'St. Elmo's lights.' These are names given to balls of electric light, seen about the masts and rigging of a ship before or during storms.

3. mien, pronounced mine to rhyme with shine. Spelt mine in the edition of 1659 with Waller's and Sprat's poems, and in the other spelt mien. It is spelt and pronounced mine in the following couplet of Marvell:

And everything so wished and fine
Starts forth withal to its bonne mine.'

Appleton House (Works, iii. 220). The word introduced from the French mine is elsewhere spelt meen in Dryden, in accordance with the French pronunciation. See The Hind and the Panther, Part i. 33, where it is spelt meen' in the original edition, and rhymes with 'seen.' In a song in Covent Garden Drollery, 'bonne mine'is Anglicised:

She will vanquish all hearts
With her boon mean and parts.'

P. 32, Second Edition, 1672. * 19. 3. wands of divination,' a divining rod. "A rod, usually of hazel, with forked branches, used by those who pretend to discover minerals or water underground. The rod, if carried slowly along in suspension, dips and points downward, when brought over the spot where the concealed mineral or water is to be found.' (Annandale, Imperial Dictionary.) See an account of the use of the rod in Scott's Antiquary, chap. xvii.

4. sovereign, all-powerful. "A sovereign remedy,' in The Flower and the Leaf, 422. "To me thy tears are sovereign.'

Rival Ladies, Act iii. Sc. 1.
• 'Cause there are pestilent airs which kill men
In health, must these be soveraigne as suddenly

To cure in sickness?' Suckling, Brennoralt, p. 20, 1638. “The most sovereign prescription in Galen.'

Shakespeare, Coriolanus, Act ii. Sc. 1. 20. There was a temple of Jupiter Feretrius in Rome, said to have been built by Romulus, who was also said to have given that title to Jupiter in offering to him the spoils taken from Acro, King of the Caeninenses, whom he had slain in battle. Romulus is further said to have ordained that the spoils taken by a Roman general from an enemy's general whom he had slain should be given to Jupiter Feretrius: such spoils were called 'spolia opima' (Livy i. 10). In the history of Rome there were only two subsequent cases of spolia opima.' Dryden here seems to mean that all spoils of war were given to Jupiter Feretrius, which was not the case : and he again betrays the same idea in translating exuviae bellorum' of Juvenal (Sat. X. 133) :

“The spoils of war brought to Feretrian Jove.' Virgil, alluding to the third instance of 'spolia opima,' those gained by Marcellus, assigns the offering to Romulus (Aen. vi. 860):

“Tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.' Dryden's translation of this line gives them to Jupiter Feretrius :

“And the third spoils shall grace Feretrian Jove.' * 21. The war with Holland began in May 1632. Peace was concluded by Cromwell in April 1654.

2. in is wrongly changed into of in the edition in the State Poems, which is followed by Scott. .

* 23. 1. Cromwell made a commercial treaty with France in Oct. 1655, which developed into an offensive and defensive alliance in March 1657.

25. 3. confident is the spelling throughout Dryden of the word now spelt confidant, meaning.one confided in.' 4. complexions, physical temperaments or humours. Compare

'Tis ill; though different your complexions are,
The family of heaven for men should war.'

Palamon and Arcite, Bk. iii. 422.
All dreams, as in old Galen I have read,
Are from repletion and complexion bred.'

The Cock and the Fox, 140.
See Shakespeare's Hamlet,' the o'ergrowth of some complexion' (Act i.
Sc. 4), and The Merchant of Venice, it is the complexion of them all
to leave the dam' (Act iii. Sc. 1).

27. 2. Commons, the people. Compare, in the Lines addressed to the Duchess of York,

•Like Commons, the nobility resort

In crowding heaps to fill your moving court.' 29. Cromwell in 1657 sent a force of six thousand men into Flanders to act with the French against the Spaniards. The Spaniards were defeated by the French and English at Dunkirk, June 4, 1658, and Dunkirk was ceded to England. The English thus became' freemen of the Continent. The Duke of York was with the Spanish army as a volunteer, and Dryden afterwards, with his accustomed versatility, eulogised the Duke as reflecting lustre on his country by serving against this force (Dedication of the Conquest of Granada, 1672). Dryden's lines on the British Lion are poor enough, but even their bathos is exceeded by Waller in his poem on the same occasion :

*Beneath the tropics is our language spoke,

And part of Flanders has received our yoke.' 30. 4. Alexander. The reigning Pope was Alexander VII.

* 31. This stanza should not be interpreted too literally. Dryden refers in very general terms to two episodes of the war with Spain. The first two lines refer to the expedition sent out by Cromwell at the end of 1654, under Penn and Venables, to attack Spain in America and the West Indies. The armament was repulsed from Hispaniola or St. Domingo in April 1655, but took Jamaica in May. It never crossed the Line nor reached gold-mines in South America. The last half of the stanza refers to the capture of a Spanish treasure fleet by Captain Stayner and Admiral Montague in 1656, near Cadiz.

34. 4. the Vestal. Tarpeia, who was crushed by the shields of the Sabines, to whom she had betrayed the citadel of Rome.

* 35. 2. That giant prince. A whale 60 feet long was taken in the Thames not far from Greenwich. (Mercurius Politicus, June 3-10, 1658.) • At this time, June 2, 1658, arrived an ominous whale in the river of Thames, not to do homage to his Highness, this was a fond conceit, as one would have it, but rather to forewarn him of his end, which not long after happened.' (The Perfect Politician or a full view of the life of 0. Cromwell, p. 259.)

* 4. Cromwell died on Sept. 3, 1658. On Aug. 30 was a great storm, which the popular imagination connected with the Protector's death. Heaven,' wrote Waller, his great soul doth claim, In storms as loud as his eternal fame.' Dryden in these lines refers to the storm. He probably had in his mind Milton's lines :

From haunted spring and dale

Edged with poplar pale
The parting genius is with sighing sent.'

(Nativity Ode, stanza xx.) 36. The first two months of Richard Cromwell's reign were serene, and there was no sign of danger or trouble for him till his Parliament met, January 27, 1659. When Dryden wrote his poem in praise of Cromwell, there was a general expectation that his son Richard would easily maintain his power. But Richard was overthrown by the army in May 1659; twelve months later Charles Stuart was restored, and then Dryden was one of the first to extol the Stuarts and the Restoration, as is to be seen in the next poem, Astræa Redux.

Astrea Redux.

Line 2. Imitating Virgil :

‘Penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.' Eclog. i. 67. 1. 3. A dreadful quiet, from Tacitus, .dira quies' (Ann. i. 65).

1. 7. An horrid stillness first invades the ear. This line has been much ridiculed, and, with all respect to Dr. Johnson, who has elaborately argued in favour of an invasion of the ear by stillness, the diction cannot be justified. The following, in ridicule of this line, occurs in a poem called News from Hell, by Captain Radcliffe :

• Laureat, who was both learned and florid,
Was damned long since for "silence horrid,”
Nor had there been such clutter made
But that this silence did invade.
Invade! and so it might well, that's clear,

But what did it invade ?-an ear!' The line is parodied and burlesqued in Duffet's Spanish Rogue (quoted in Genest's History of the Stage, i. 162):

“A silent noise, methinks, invades my ear.' Compare with Dryden's line one as objectionable in Cowley : A dreadful silence filled the hollow place.'

Davideis, Bk. i. ll. 9-12. Charles X of Sweden died February 12, 1660. He had succeeded Queen Christina in 1654. Sweden had been, during the greater part of his reign, and was at the time of his death, at war with Poland, Russia, Austria, Denmark, and Holland. His son being a minor, Charles X appointed by will regents, and on his death-bed exhorted these to restore peace to his kingdom. Peace was concluded with Denmark and Holland by the treaty of Oliva, May 1660, and with Austria, Prussia, and Poland by the treaty of Copenhagen in July 1660.

11. 17, 18. By the treaty of the Pyrenees, by which peace was made between France and Spain, November 1659, it was agreed that Louis XIV, king of France, should marry the Infanta Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of Philip IV, king of Spain.

1. 35. The sacred purple means the bishops, and the scarlet gown the

peers.

1. 37. Typhoeus (Tupweús), generally incorrectly printed Typhæus. The Greeks also called him Tupús, whence Typhon, his usual name with the English poets. “Roaring Typhon' (Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, Act i. Sc. 3). Milton and Waller also call him Typhon :

Typhon, whom the den
By ancient Tarsus held.' Paradise Lost, i. 199.

"So Jove himself, when Typhon Heaven does brave,
Descends to visit Vulcan's smoky cave.'

Waller, To the King. Typhoeus or Typhon is a hundred-headed giant, of classical mythology, fabled to have once driven Jupiter and the gods from heaven. He was afterwards quelled by Jupiter with a thunderbolt, and stowed away, according to Homer, whom Milton follows, in Cilicia (Il. ii. 783), but Virgil placed him under the islands Inarime and Prochyta, off the west coast of Italy, near Vesuvius (Aen. ix. 716).

*l. 42. After the king's death the House of Lords was abolished as 'useless, and dangerous to the people of England to be continued' (March 19, 1649). The bishops had previously been excluded from the House of Lords (Feb. 15, 1642), and presbytery established in place of episcopacy.

1. 45. Cyclops, wrongly printed Cyclop in most modern editions, including Scott's. Cyclops'is.both singular and plural with Dryden. It occurs in the plural in Threnodia Augustalis, 441 :

With hardening cold and forming heat,

The Cyclops did their strokes repeat.' It is the same with corps, the usual spelling in Dryden of the word now spelt corpse ; corps is both singular and plural.

1. 46. savage liberty. Compare Absalom and Achitophel, 11. 50-56, and the lines quoted from The Conquest of Granada,' in the Introduction (p. lvi).

1. 51. tossed by fate. 'Jactatus fatis' (Virg. Aen. iv. 3).

1. 61. cozened. couzned in the two early editions. The change of spelling does not affect the metre, the e of the last syllable being elided in pronunciation. So again, 'well-couz’ned,” line 128; ‘lengthned,” line 135; rip'ned,' line 89; and this is the usual, though not uniform, mode of printing words of this class through the early editions of all Dryden's works. 1. 65. lavering, tacking; a word of Dutch origin.

• To catch opinion as a ship the wind,
Which blowing cross, the pilot backwards steers,
And, shifting sails, makes way when he laveers.'

Davenant, Works, p. 280, fol. 1673. Spelt laver in Suckling, but the accent is on the last syllable : 'Can you laver against this tempest ?'

The Goblins, Act iv. p. 44. • With as much ease as a skipper

Would laver against the wind. Id., Act iv. P. 40. 1. 67. soft Otho. The Roman Emperor Otho, who committed suicide. He became emperor on the death of Galba, January, A.D. 69; Vitellius

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