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jesty's expectation. His majesty culturists, moved that the followtrusts, therefore, that you will be ing words should be inserted in able, after providing for the ser- the address “ That this House viees of the year, and without af- views with the deepest regret and fecting public credit, tò make a anxiety, the severe and unexampled further considerable reduction in distress which now afflicts the the burthens of his people. country, and will immediately pro

"My Lords and Gentlemen, ceed to inquire into and examine

His majesty has commanded its causes ; also the results which us to state to you, that the mani- have arisen from altering the value festations of loyalty and attacha' of the currency; and the means of ment to his person and government, administering speedy and effectual which his majesty received in his relief.” The speech which he late visit to Scotland, have made' made in support of this amendment, the deepest impression upon his was composed of exaggerated reheart.

presentations of the agricultural The provision which you made embarrassments, feeble and illogical in the last session of parliament efforts to prove that these embarfor the relief of the distresses in rassments proceeded from our reconsiderable districts in Ireland, turn to cash payments, and audahas been productive of the happiest cious recommendations of national effects, and his majesty recom- bankruptcy. "If we contemplate," mends to your consideration such said his lordship, “the effects which measures of internal regulation as the change of currency. has promay be calculated to promote and duced upon taxation, we find that secure the tranquillity of that the public annuitants now receive country, and to improve the habits twice as much in the produce of and condition of the people. the earth as they did in 1819,

"Deeply as his majesty regrets and nearly twice as much as the continued depression of the they then did in other commodiagricultural interest, the satisfac- ties. Is not this to be considered tion with which his majesty con- as a most nefarious fraud that templates the increasing activity has been practised on the nation, which pervades the manufacturing and as an act of public robbery? districts, and the flourishing con- We hear much about public faith, dition of our commerce in most of but it did not, and could not pledge its principal branches, is greatly the nation to pay the public credienhanced by the confident persua- tors twice as much as they ought sion that the progressive prosperity to receive, and as they did receive of so many of the interests of the three years ago. The reduction country cannot fail to contribute of the dividends, which is impeto the gradual improvement of that' riously required by the safety of great interest, which is the most the country, is strictly conformable important of them all."

to justice, in consequence of the The address was moved by lord alteration of the currency in which Morley, and seconded by lord they are paid.”. Mayo. Earl Stanhope, after la- Lord Lansdown thought, that menting that there seemed no in- the topics which lord Stanhope had tention on the part of government discussed, however important in to administer relief to the agri- themselves, ought to be passed over for the present, and that, in ministers for having used their the crisis which now threatened exertions to avert the calamity of Europe, it was desirable that the

a war on the continent, and for Address should be adopted unanim- having made protestations, howously. He only wished, that it ever vainly, against the conduct of had been couched in stronger France, he confessed that he did terms, and that in it, as well as in not, under all the circumstances of the speech from the throne, there the case, think the present was a had been a stronger and more ex- fit time for proposing any further plicit declaration of the sense declaration of opinion than was which this country entertained of contained in the address already those principles, which had unfore moved. tunately found their way into the Lord Liverpool asserted, that councils of some of the great there could not be a more dispowers of Europe, and which, if tinct statement of the intenacted upon to their natural extent, tions of the government, than would not fail to involve Europe was contained in the first parain confusion. Those principles graph of the speech from the had now, for the second time, been throne: “ Faithful to the principromulgated in a manner which ples which his majesty had proleft no room for doubt as to their mulgated to the world as constitendency: and far from thinking tuting the rule of his conduct, his it expedient to palter with the majesty declined being a party to sense of parliament and the coun- any proceedings at Verona, which try, he was of opinion that his ma- could be deemed an interference in jesty's ministers would act wisely the internal concerns of Spain.” and judiciously, to unite with the Those principles were to be found legislature and the people in ex- in a note written by a dear and very pressing their indignation at, ra- lamented friend of his, and issued ther than their disapprobation of, on the 19th of January, 1821. In such a system, if there was any that note, the policy of the British chance of thereby averting the government was distinctly declared; calamities which must grow out of and it rested on the principles of it. Whether or not government the law of nations, which allowed would declare its opinion of the every country to judge how it conduct of the continental powers could best be governed, and what as he thought it should—and he ought to be its institutions; and if was willing to believe that, in exceptions to the rule might arise some degree, it already had done out of considerations of self-de50—he was sure that public feel- fence and self-preservation, these ing would find vent through various were to be considered as exceptions, channels, and that every part of and were to stand on their own the country would be eager to pro- peculiar merits. He and his colclaim to the world the opinion leagues viewed the question of which it entertained, and the sense Spain as one purely Spanish, and which it cherished, of the rights of not mixed up with any other. nations, and the important in- There had been, and he sincerely terests which England had in trusted there would be, throughmaintaining them. At the same out the career of those who had time, being bound to give credit to the conduct of affairs in that couus

was

try, a less taint of blood, of crime, lutely closed against negotiation and violence, than was afforded by and amicable arrangement. almost any other example of a si- The lords divided

upon

lord milar revolution that had occurred Stanhope's amendment: and after in modern history. The constitu- it had been rejected by a majority tion had been adopted by Spain, of 62 Not-contents, to 3 Contents, and acknowledged by Great Bri- the address was carried unanitain, while war was raging in the mously. peninsula. If it wanted correction, In the Commons, the address the monarch had the power of cor- having been moved by Mr. Childe, recting it when he first accepted it. and seconded by Mr. Wildman, The Spaniards, far from wishing Sir Joseph Yorke expressed the to interfere with other countries, satisfaction with which he found disclaimed any such right. If he ministers following the good old dreaded war as affecting Spain, he feelings of the country, and not dreaded it still more as affecting advocating an interference in the France. Under such circumstances, internal concerns of another state. every man must admit, that the He thought this country policy of this country was, to pre- bound to show to France and the serve neutrality. But, while he world, the absurdity, the impolicy, , said this, he protested against be- and the injustice of a declaration ing supposed for a moment to ad- of war against Spain in the premit the idea that, if unavoidable sent moment. A more outrageous circumstances presented no alter- act of violence never was, and native to England but war or dis- never could be committed, than honour, we were not in a state to the meditated attack upon that go to war. On the contrary, as

brave nation. It should be recollong as parliament refused to lected, that these Spaniards were adopt any measures calculated to the very men who placed the sap the foundations of public cre- Bourbons on the throne who dit, he was convinced, that, if a seated Ferdinand himself at the war should appear to be necessary

head of the government, at a peto the preservation of our honour, riod when to power could have the country was in a state to meet forced him upon them against their it. Still, after the extraordinary will. And was it against such efforts which Great Britain had so men that the Bourbons of France recently made, and taking into were now going to make war? He consideration the present state of trusted the evil might be yet Europe, it was most desirable, if averted ; for who could say, when we could do so with regard to jus- blood was once shed, and when tice, to our safety, to our honour, cannon were fired on this side of and to our engagements with our the Bidassoa—who could say that allies, that we should preserve our this country could long remain neutral position. The present, neuter ? Circumstanced as however, was not the time for the were, it might indeed be desirable consideration of that question, that we should be neutral ; but, For, whatever might be the existwith a commerce extending from ing probability of a rupture be- Pole to Pole, with interests which tween France and Spain, he did must be more or less affected by not consider the door as yet abso, every hostile movement between

we

the powers of Europe, he would hon. gentlemen who had moved ask any man, whose breast beat and seconded the address, and exwith honest feelings of independe press his satisfaction at what, in ence, how, situated as we were, the House, and in the country we could keep long out of such a would, unanimously, be felt to be, war, if once commenced? It was the sound and liberal view which for this reason, and because he was they had taken of this matter. anxious to avert the evil if possible, Indeed, he knew not, that, circumby a strong declaration of the feel- stanced as they were, they could ings of this country, that he would go farther ; or that his majesty's wish every member of that House ministers could, in the present to rise in his place, and state his state of this very delicate afopinion as to whether France was fair, have gone beyond the comright in her present course or not. munication of to-day. That com

To this appeal Mr. Brougham munication, coupled with the comanswered in a speech which was one mentary of the movers, would be joy of the happiest efforts of his manly and exultation to England would and versatile eloquence. Scorning diffuse joy and exultation over the rhetorical prettinesses of anti- Spain-would be a source of comfort theses and metaphors, he exposed to other free states—but would bring in banguage, in which contemp- confusion and dismay to the allies; tuous and bitter invective was in- who, by a pretended respect for, termingled with sound argument, but a real mockery of, religion and the abstract absurdity and injustice morality, made war upon liberty of the proceedings of the continen- in the abstract, and endeavouring tal sovereigns, and the inconsis- to crush independence, wherever it tency of their conduct with their was to be found, were now ready past actions, promises, and preten-, with their armed hordes to carry sions: illustrating his argument, their frightful projects into execuand giving strength to his invec- tion. If war were once commenced, tive, by happy historical allusions, we should soon be compelled to and communicating to his words a take some part in it; and for such new power, by the earnest vehe- an emergency, every shilling, which mence of manner and of tone with could be saved by the most rigid which they were accompanied. economy, should be reserved. We He rose, he said, to join with were bound to assist one party, our every man who deserved the name old ally Portugal, if she should be of Briton, in expressing unqualified engaged; and it was not likely that abhorrence and detestation at the she could remain neuter, if the audacious interference of the con- present ill-fated conspiracy against tinental sovereigns in the affairs Spain should proceed to open hosof Spain ; or if that detestation tility. This view of the question was qualified, it was only by it was, in which he differed from indignation and disgust at the the gallant officer (Sir J. Yorke) canting hypocrisy of the language who last spoke ; and he was glad, in which the loathsome principles that he could not collect from the of the tyrants were promulgated to hon. mover or seconder, the ominous the world. But he should ill dis- words “strict neutrality," as apcharge his duty if he did not mark plied to this country in the his sense of the candour of the two threatened contest. A state of declared neutrality on our part ment of the Cortes, “laws which would be nothing less than a de- the public reason of Europe, en. clared permission of those evils lightened by the experience of all which we condemned, and a tacit ages, stamped with its disapprobaallowance of the atrocious princi- tion.” Where, in the conservative ples which we were unanimous in character of keeper of the peace of deprecating. He would say, there, Europe, did his imperial majesty fore, that it would be the duty of discover, that the constitution of his majesty's ministers, with whom Spain had been stamped with the he should be glad to co-operate on disapprobation

of the public reason the occasion-and so, he was cer- of Europe? The “public reason, tain, would every one who then of Europe, enlightened by the exheard him to come to the resolu- perience of all ages,” happened to tion, that when certain things be that of his imperial majesty should take place on the continent, himself for the last ten years; for, we should be ready to assist the notwithstanding that he had the Spaniards a measure necessary to "experience of all ages" before prevent evils, which even those the his eyes, he did in the year 1812 least prone to war must admit to enter into a treaty with Spain, be inevitable, should a wavering or with the same Cortes, the same pusillanimous course be pursued. constitution, not one word of which Our assistance would be necessary had been changed up to the present to avert the wicked enforcement of hour; and in that treaty, the emprinciples contrary to the law of peror of all the Russias, using the nations, and repugnant to every very word by which he and his idea of national independence. To allies would themselves be de. judge of the principles now avowed, signated the word by the abuse let any man read patiently, if he of which they were known-called could, the declarations in the notes the Spanish government of the of Russia, Prussia, and Austria; Cortes “a legitimate government.” to produce any thing more prepos- But not only was the conduct of terous, more absurd, more extrava- the allies inconsistent with the gant, more calculated to excite a treaties of some among them with mixed feeling of disgust and de- Spain; their principle of interferrision, would baffle any chanceryence was wholly at variance even or state-paper office in Europe. with treaties recently made amongst In the note from the minister of themselves. By the 4th article of his Prussian majesty, the re-estab- the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, dated Lishment of the Cortes of 1812 was in November 1818, it was laid thus described-“which, confound down, that a special congress might ing all elements, and all power, and be held from time to time on the assuming only the single principle affairs of Europe, or, to use the of a permanent and legal oppo- words, and borrowing the hypostion against the government, critical cant of their predecessors, necessarily destroyed that central the three powers who basely parand tutelary authority which con. titioned Poland-who, while they stitutes the essence of the mo, despoiled a helpless nation of its narchical system.” The emperor independence, kept preaching about of Russia, in terms not less strong, the quiet of Europe, the integrity called the constitutional governs of its states, and the morality and

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