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happiness of their people, and talked Who could, or who dared, doubt, daily about their desire of calm re- that she was all she so described pose, the atmosphere in which des- herself; and who could, after the potism loved to breathe, but which experience of the last year, dispute an ancient writer had eloquently the legitimate descent of the allied painted, when he called it the still- powers, and the purity of their inness of desolation-following the tentions towards Spain? But, along vile cant of their ancestors, the allies with this declaration of the object of declared, at Aix-la-Chapelle, that future congresses, came a stipulatheir object was, to secure the tran- tion, which he should like to see quillity of Europe—that their fun

some man versed in the manufacdamental principle should be, never tory of state-papers, compare with, to depart from a strict adherence and reconcile to, the notes fashioned to the law of nations : “ faithful at Verona, probably by the very to these principles," (continued hands which had produced the this half-sermon, half-romance, treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The and half-state-paper) “they would stipulation was this “Special only study the happiness of their congresses concerning the affairs of people, the progress of the peaceful states not parties to this alliance, arts, and attend carefully to the shall not take place, except” (and interests of morality and religion, how had Spain, which was no of late years, unhappily too much party to the alliance, brought herneglected.”—Alexander here fol- self within the exception)—"exlowed the example of the auto- cept in consequence of a formal incratrix Catherine-who, having, vitation from such states ;"_"and wasted and pillaged Poland, pro- their ambassador shall assist at such vince after province, poured hordes congresses.” Now, the interof her barbarians into the capital, ference in the internal affairs of and there, from the rising of the Spain was not only not "by spesun to the going down thereof, cial invitation” from, but was in butchered the unoffending inhabi- downright opposition to the will tants, unarmed men, and women, of Spain. Thus stood the conduct and infants; and, not content with of those holy allies diametrically this work of undistinguishing opposed to their own professions slaughter, after the pause of the and engagements; and by such night had given time for cooling, means was the attempt now made rose on the morrow, renewed the to crush the independence of a carnage, and continued it through brave people !—But it was not in out that day; yet, after this, or- the case of Spain alone, that the dered a Te Deum to be sung, to

consideration of these papers was return thanks for her success over important—they furnished grounds the enemies of Poland, and in the of rational fear to all independent midst of these most horrible out- governments; for he should be rages upon every feeling of human glad to learn, what case it was nature, issued a proclamation, in (upon the doctrines now advanced) which she assured the Poles, that to which this principle of interfera! she felt towards them,

ence might not be extended. The licitude of a tender mother, whose revolt of the colonies was distinctly heart is only filled with sentiments stated by these armed legislators, of kindness for all her children,” as one ground of interposition; and

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they kindly offered their “inter- ment. As well might he accuse vention," to restore this great the people, the parliament, and the branch of “the strength of Spain.” crown of England, of causing There was no end of the occasions “ blood to flow in the palace of the for interfering which they took. king," for ordering the sentinels to One was rather alarming—the ac- fire on any person whom they cident of a sovereign having weak might find attempting to assassior bad ministers. Russia, forsooth, nate the sovereign, as accuse the was anxious to see Ferdinand sur- Spaniards of such a crime, for the rounded with the most enlighten- events which happened in July ed, the most faithful of his subjects” 1822.—Many other heavy charges -men “of tried integrity and su- were levelled at the Spaniards, in perior talents:" So that, according phrases of terrible import,--as“larto these wise men of Verona (and bouring a disorganized philosophy," this was a consideration which indulging in dreams of fallacious should be looked to, in some other liberty," and the want of “ countries as well as Spain), the ble and sacred rights,"—with which existence of an inefficient or un- the Prussian note was loaded to principled administration, would repletion That of Russia objected be of itself a just ground of inter- to the Spaniards their want of the ference. The principle did not “true conservative principle of stop here: “ruinous loans,” formed social order;" or, in other words, another ground, and “contribu- of despotic power, in the hands of tions unceasingly renewed;" one man, for his own benefit, at "taxes which, for year after year, the expense of all mankind beexhausted the public treasures and sides; and their not falling within the fortunes of individuals.” To the scope

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grand truths,” complete all the charges against which, though they were ever in Spain, the Russian emperor finish- their mouths, were no where exed his invective with the awful as- plained by any one of the three sertion, that, on the 7th of July, sovereigns. The Austrian note “ blood was seen to flow in the discoursed largely of “the solid palace of the king, and a civil war and venerable claims” which the raged throughout the peninsula.” Spanish nation had upon the rest It was true, that a revolt had been of Europe: prayed it to adopt a excited in some of the provinces. better form of government than it But by whom? By an ally; by had at present; and called upon it those cordons of troops, which were to reject a system which was at posted on the Spanish frontier, once

once "powerful and paralyzed.” armed with gold and with steel, Monstrous and insolent and utterly and affording shelter and assistance unbearable, as all these state-papers by force, to those in whose minds were, he considered that of Russia disaffection had been excited by to be more monstrous, more insobribery. It was also true, that lent, and more prodigiously beyond blood had been shed. But how, all endurance, than the rest. It and under what circumstances? A was difficult to determine which few persons were killed, who had most to wonder at—the marvellous first attacked the constitutionalists; incongruity of her language and in other words, who mutinied conduct now, with her former most against the established govern- solemn treatics; or the incredible presumption of her standing for- by whom the world was at present ward to lead the aggression, upon infested, they might console themthe independence of all free and selves with this reflection—that polished states. : Gracious God! wherever there was an EnglishRussia ma power that was only man, either of the old world or of half civilized that, with all her the new wherever there was a colossal mass of physical strength, Frenchman, with the exception of was still quite as much Asiatic as that little band which now swayed European-whose principles of po- the destinies of France in opposilicy, foreign and domestic, were tion to the wishes and interests of completely despotic, and whose its gallant and liberal populationpractices were almost altogether wherever there was a free heart or oriental and barbarous! In all virtuous mind, there Spain had a these documents, there was, with a natural and an unalienable friend. mighty number of general remarks, Mr. Brougham went on to exmixed up a wondrous affectation of press his admiration of the mingled honest principles a great many firmness and forbearance exhibited words covering ideas that were not by the Spanish government, which, altogether clear and intelligible; among so many provocations, had or, if they happened to be so, only disdained to retaliate on its insultplacing their own deformity in a ing enemies by giving utterance to more hideous and detestable light: accusations which might have been but, for argument, or any thing made against them. When, said like it, there was none to be found he, the allied monarchs were from the beginning to the end of pleased to adopt a system of inthem. They reasoned not; but terference with the internal policy they spoke one plain language to of Spain—when they thought fit Spain and to Europe, and that lan- to descend to minute and paltry guage was. We have 100,000 criticisms upon the whole course hired mercenaries, and we will not of her domestic government when stoop to reason with those whom every sentence in their respective we have determined to crush as notes was a direct personal insult slaves, or annihilate as freemen.” to every individual Spaniard, and Admirable was the frankness, with when the most glaring attempts which this haughty language had were made in their different manibeen met by the Spanish govern- festos to excite rebellion in the ment: the papers which it had country, and to stir up one class sent forth were plain and laconic; of the community against the other: they said :-“We are millions of what would have been more natufreemen, and will not stoop to rea- ral for the Spanish government, son with men who threaten to en- than to have asked his Prussian slave us.” They hurled back the majesty, to remember the many threat to the quarter from which vows and promises which he had it issued, caring little whether it made some years ago to his own was from the Goth, the Hun, or people, and to have suggested to the Calmuck; with firmness they him, that it would be more conmet the craft of the Bohemian, sistent with those promises to give and with courage the savage fero- his subjects a representative form city of the Tartar. If they found of government, than to maintain leagued against them the tyrants, at their cost, and almost to their

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utter ruin, a large standing army, tory of the world-even he might for the purpose of ravaging the have been reminded of passages in territories, or putting down the history, calculated to lessen his asliberties, of any neighbouring tonishment, at least, if not to power? Might not Spain have soothe his feelings; for the empeasked the emperor of Austria, rör Alexander, if the annals of whether he, who now pretended to Russian story might be trusted, be so just, when the interests of however pure in himself, and how Ferdinand were concerned, had ever happy in always having agents acted with equal justice towards equally innocent, was nevertheless others? Whether, before he was descended from an illustrious line generous to Ferdinand, he ought of ancestors, who had, with exemnot to be just to England, and plary uniformity, dethroned, im- repay to her the whole, or a con- prisoned, and slaughtered, hussiderable part of the 20 millions bands, brothers, and children. he had borrowed of her in his day Not that those enormities were of distress. If the doctrine of in- to be imputed to the parents, or terference in the internal concerns sisters, or consorts; but it did of neighbouring nations were at all happen, that those exalted and admitted, what could have been near relations had never failed to more rightful, in a free people, reap the whole benefit of the than to have asked him, how it atrocities, and had always failed to happened, that his dungeons were bring the perpetrators to justice. filled with all that was noble, and It was, however, painful to find, accomplished, and virtuous, and that a monarch, so enlightened as patriotic in the Milanese ?-to the king of France had shown himhave called on him to account for self on various occasions to be, the innocent blood, which he had should have yielded obedience, even shed in the north of Italy? --to for a time, to the arbitrary manhave required at his hands satis- dates of this tyrannic Junta. He faction for the tortures inflicted in had been persuaded by them and the vaults and caverns, where the by the parasites by whom he was flower of his subjects were now at present surrounded, to tell the languishing to have demanded of world, that it was from the hands him some explanation of that iron of a tyrant alone that a free people policy, by which he had consigned could hold a constitution. That fathers of families, the most vir- accomplished prince could not but tuous and exalted in Europe, not be aware, that all the wise and to exile or death, but to a merciless good men of former times differed imprisonment for ten, fifteen, and with him in opinion upon this twenty years--nay, even for life, point. “Non in ulla civitate, nisi without a knowledge of the charge in qua summa potestas populi est, against them, or of the crime for ullum domicilium libertas habet.” which they were punished ? Even Such was the language of Cicero; the emperor Alexander himself, of one, who to the wisdom of a tender and sensitive as he was at great philosopher, added the expethe sight of blood flowing within rience of a great statesman, and the precincts of a royal palacema who, living in times of danger, sight so monstrous, that, if his lan- and of, difficulty, and having guage could be credited, it had to contend with the most forminever before been seen in the his- dable conspiracy to which the life and liberty of social man were ever which had been effected by its ina exposed, put forth only the vigour fluence, they hated with the maof his own genius, and of the law, lignity of demons ; for they were and never thought of calling into compelled to fear, and tremble at his assistance the Allobroges, the the very sound of its name. It Teutones, or the Scythians of his was on this account, that, disguise day; "and I now say,” continued it as they might, they could Mr. Brougham, “that if the king feel no real friendship for Great of France calls on either the modern Britain. It was idle to supTeutones or the modern Scythians pose that these armed critics could to assist him in this unholy war, be bounded in their views by any judgment will that moment go limits of time or of country. If forth against him and his family, there were any portion of territory and the dynasty of Gaul will be in the neighbourhood of the empechanged at once and for ever." ror Alexander, which appeared peThe learned gentleman then asked, culiarly suited to his views, would what were the grounds on which he not soon be able to discover the necessity of this war was de- some flaw in its political institutions fended. It was said to be under- requiring his intervention, suppotaken, because an insurrection had sing it even to be a part of the broken out with success at Madrid. Turkish government ? Nay, if He denied this to be the fact. his imperial majesty, with his conWhat was called an insurrection, sistory of tyrants and armed critics, was an attempt to restore the law- were met by the Ulemah, with ful constitution of the country. all his tribe of learned Muftis, Let the pretext, however, be what pleading that their government was it might, the real cause of the war of the most sacred and venerable was not hard to conjecture. It description—that it had antiquity was not from hatred to Spain or in its favour-that it was in full Portugal, considered simply as possession of “the conservative Spain and Portugal, that the allied principle of social order"—that it sovereigns were for marching their was replete with grand truths,” hordes into the Peninsula—it was --that it was "powerful and paranot against freedom on the Ebro, lysed”-that it had never listened or freedom on the Mincio, that they to “the fatal doctrines of a diswere making war: no, it was organized philosophy,” and that it against freedom in the abstract had never been visited by any such wherever it was to be found-by things as “ dreams of fallacious whatever men it was enjoyed—by liberty;" still these “three genwhatever checks it was secured tlemen of Verona" would not turn and by whatever safeguards it was away, but would pry about for an guaranteed. Freedom was the ob- avenue by which to enter into the ject of their most inveterate hate, territory in question, and if they and against freedom they were could not find a way, would not be ready to employ every species both very scrupulous about making one ; of fraud and force. They dreaded and the result would be, that, in its institutions—they abhorred its three months from the time of despirit; all the benefits which it had liberation, the emperor Alexander conferred upon mankind, all the would be at Constantinople, or at monuments which had been raised Minorca ; and that Austria and in its honour, all the miracles Prussia would be invited to look

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