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advantages agricultural agricultural products aids amount arise arrangements assistance attended bank become benefit branches of production brought called capital causes chapter circumstances civil commerce commodities connected consumers cost cultivation demand directed distinct division economical effects employed employment engaged especially established exchange exist expense extent favorable foreign former furnished further give greater hand Hence higher human important improvements increase individual industry influence instances interest introduced invention kind labor land larger laws lead less limited look loss manner manufactures materials measures ment nation nature necessary needed objects obtained offer paid perhaps population portion possess present principles production profits proportion prosperity received refer remuneration rendered rent respect result society statement supply supposed term tion trade usually variations wages wants wealth whole
Seite 303 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as Little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Seite 302 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State .... In the observation or neglect of this maxim, consists what is called the equality 'or inequality of taxation.
Seite 40 - ... transporting the materials from some of those workmen to others who often live in a very distant part of the country! How much commerce and navigation in particular, how many ship-builders, sailors, sailmakers, rope-makers, must have been employed in order to bring together the different drugs made use of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners of the world...
Seite 302 - The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of payment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to every other person.
Seite 39 - Observe the accommodation of the most common artificer or day-labourer in a civilized and thriving country, and you will perceive that the number of people, of whose industry a part, though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him this accommodation, exceeds all computation. The woollen coat, for example, which covers the day-labourer, as coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitude of workmen.
Seite 40 - What a variety of labour, too, is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen ! to say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the...
Seite 42 - It is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another, that is carried on in a different place, and with quite different tools. A country weaver who cultivates a small farm must lose a good deal of time in passing from his loom to the field and from the field to his loom. When the two trades can be carried on in the same workhouse the loss of time is no doubt much less.
Seite 41 - ... without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine, the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.