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Smith in 1614 ; and the other two probably died in London, and one of them (or some other Indian) was exhibited as a show after his death, a circumstance to which Shakspeare has alluded in the second act of this comedy, Sc. II.; and which, though then unacquainted with these particulars, I formerly suggested, as likely to contribute some aid in fixing the date of THE TEMPEST: but if even the day of the death of either of them were known, it would only ascertain a time before which the play could not have been composed, unless it were shewn that some Indian had previously died, and been exhibited in London; and I am now not under the necessity of having recourse to such uncertain grounds of conjecture, as I shall be able to point out the precise period when this beautiful comedy was written and first represented.
In 1608, Captain Harlow was sent to Cape Cod by Lord Southampton and some of the inhabitants of the isle of Wight, of which he was Governour, and brought back with him five Indians, one of whom was named EPINEW, or EPINOW, a man of extraordinary stature and strength, who was exhibited for money in various parts of London.
I have mentioned the voyages of Captains Weymouth and Harlow, because they were undertaken partly at the charge of Lord Southampton, and must on that account alone have attracted our poet's notice, and drawn his attention to the colonial projects that took place at this period. Men's thoughts indeed were then so strongly directed
towards the new world, that the successes and miscarriages of the several adventurers who went there could not but have been a very general topick of conversation, as is evinced by the various publicaon those subjects *.
* 1. A briefe and true Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part of Virginia, being a most pleasant, fruitfull, and commodious, soile, made this present yeere 1602, by Captaine Bartholomew Gosnold, Captaine Bartholowmew Gilbert, and divers other gentlemen their associates, by the permission of the honourable Sir Walter Ralegh, &c. written by Mr. John Brereton, one of the voyage. 4to. 1662.
2. A prosperous Voyage on the Discovery of the North Part of Virginia. By Captain George Weymouth. 4to. 1605.
3. Nova Britannia, offering most excellent Fruites by planting in Virginia. 4to. 1609.- This tract was entered in the Stationers' Register, Feb. 17, 1608-9.
4. A good Speed to Virginia. By Robert Gray. Entered in the Stationers' Register, May 3, 1609.
5. A Sermon preached in London before the Right Hon. Lord Delaware, Lord Gov'nor and Captayn Gen'rall of Virginia, and others of his Ma'ties Councell for that Kingdome, 21st of Feb. last, entitled, A Newe Year's Gifte to Virginia." Entered in the Stationers' Register, March 19, 1609-10.
6. Newes from Bermudas. This tract, which I have never seen, appears to have been that set forth by Thomas Gates, and was probably published in September or October 1610. My knowledge of the title is obtained from a manuscript marginal note in an old hand, in one of the pamphlets relative to Virginia, in the collection of my friend, Mr. Bindley.
7. Virginia News :-published before Oct. 1st, 1610, as appears by an assignment of that date, in the Stationers' Register.
I am not sure that this and the next are not the same pamphlet.
8. A Discovery of the Bermudas, otherwise called the Isle of Divells, &c. by Sil. Jourdan, 4to. 1610. Republished with additions, in 1613.
A new charter having been granted in May 1609, to the Company for making a plantation and settlement in Virginia, it was resolved by the Treasurer and Council of that Company to send thither immediately a large supply of men and provisions. Of the disaster which befell the fleet employed on that occasion, the following clear and succinct ac
9. A true Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie in Virginia, with a confutation of such scandalous reports as bave tended to the disgrace of so worthy an enterprise. Published by advise and direction of the Councel of Virginia, 4to. 1610. Entered in the Stationers' Register, Nov. 8, 1610.
10. The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-la-Ware, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of the colonie planted in Virginea, 4to. 1612. Entered in the Stationers' Registers, by W. Welby, 1611, under the following title:
The Relac'on of the Right Hon'ble the Lord Delaware, Lord Gove'nour of the Colony planted in Virginia, made to the LL. and others of the Counsell of Virginia, touchinge his unexpected returne home, &c. and afterwards delivered in the gen’rall assembly of the sayd Councell at a Courte holden the 25th of June, 1611; published by order of the sayd Councell.
11. A Ballad, called The Last News from Virginia, being an Encouragement to all others to follow that noble Enterprise, &c. Entered in the Stationers' Register by John Wright, August 16, 1611.
12. The New Life of Virginea, declaring the former Success and present Estate of that Plantation.
13. The Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia, from 1606 to the present Year 1612. By W. S. (W. Strachey.] 4to. 1612.
This list, I believe, is far from being complete.
In a letter written to the Earl of Shrewsbury, June 8, 1609, Dr. Tobias Mathew, Archbishop of York, says,—" Of Vire ginia there be so many tractates, divine, humane, historicall, politicall, or call them as you please, as no further intelligence I dare desire.” Lodge's Illustrations, &c. iii. 371.
count has been given by a very sensible modern historian. To his narrative I shall subjoin the more minute and particular relation of one engaged in this adventure, as well as that printed by authority of the Council; which will fully shew that the incidents attending it suggested to Shakspeare the leading circumstance of this comedy:
“ The New Charter,” says the Reverend Mr. Stith, was granted to the Earls of Salisbury, Suffolk, SOUTHAMPTON, Pembroke, and other peers, to the number of twenty-one; to the Honourable George Percy and Francis West, Esquires; to Sir Humphrey Weld, Lord Mayor of London, and ninety-eight other knights; and to Dr. Mathew, Sutcliff, with a great multitude more of doctors, esquires, gentlemen, officers, merchants and citizens, together with many corporations and companies of London. So many persons of great power, interest, and fortune, engaging in the enterprise, and the Lord Delaware with the other gentlemen of distinction being appointed to the several offices (of Captain General, &c.] soon drew in such large sums of money, that they dispatched away Sir Thomas Gates, (who had been constituted by the Council for Virginia, Lieutenant-General,] Sir George Somers, [Admiral,] and Captain Newport, (Vice-Admiral,] with nine ships and five hundred people. These three gentlemen had each of them a commission,-who first arrived to call in the old. But because they could not agree for place, it was concluded that they should all go in one ship, called
the SEA-VENTURE. They sailed from England the latter end of May *, 1609; but the 25th of July the ADMIRAL-SHIP WAS PARTED FROM THE REST OF THE FLEET by the tail of a hurricane, having on board the three commanders, an hundred and fifty men, their new commission and bills of lading, together with all manner of instructions and directions, and the best part of their provisions. She arrived not, but was foundered at Bermudas, as shall be hereafter related. A small catch likewise perished in the hurricane; but the seven other ships came safe” [to Virginia.] +.
“ It hath been before said (continues the historian) that the Admiral-ship, with Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captain Newport, on board was separated from the rest of the fleet in a storm. She was so racked and torn by the violent working of the sea, and became so shattered and leaky, that the water rose in the hold above two tire of hogsheads; and they were obliged to stand up to their middles, with kettles, buckets, and other vessels to bail it out. And thus they bailed and pumped three days and nights, without intermission; and yet the water seemed rather to ga upon them than decrease. At last, all being utterly spent with labour, and seeing no hope, in
* This is not quite correct. They sailed in fact, as will be seen hereafter, on the 8th of June.
† History of the first discovery and settlement of Virginia, by William Stith, A. M. 8vo. 1747, pp. 101, 102.