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into the land; as the Gulf of Mexico,* the Gulf of Guinea,t and the Bay of Biscay. I

If it be very small, it is a creek, a haven, station, or road for ships.

12. A strait is a narrow part of the sea, forming a passage from one sea to another; as the strait of Gibraltar, the strait of Magellan, and the strait of Dover.

A strait is sometimes called a sound, as the strait into the Baltic.

13. A lake is a large collection of water, entirely surrounded by land; as the lake of Geneva in Switzerland.

14. A river is a body of water rising in the land, and afterwards running into the sea, as the Thames.

15. A cataract is a high fall of water in a large river, which may be heard at the distance of several miles.

CHAP. III. A Description of the most conspicuous parts of the known World ; of its general division into Empires, Kingdoms, States, &c. and of the Manners and Characters of its Inhabitants ; also a general estimate of the Population of each Country.

Of Europe.

3. Com-mo'-di-ous, a, spacious and well-contrived.

Po"-pu-lous, a. abounding in people, well inhabited.

* Running in between the Americas. + Contiguous to Africa.

Running into France. Ś The narrow neck of water which divides, Terra del Fuego from Patagonia, in South America.

H

7. Ro-bust', a. strong. Con-sti-tu'-ti-on, s. the habit, state, or condition of a man's body

as to health or sickness. When a person is weak or sickly, be · is said to be of a weak or bad constitution. (In law, the settled

or fundamental laws, orders, or decrees of a state, or a society) Sus-tain', v. to bear, to support, to endure. 9. Po'-lish-ed, a. signifying elegant and good behaviour. (Made

smooth, by rubbing, so as to shine.) * Lux-u’-ri-ous, a. indulging in high food or liquors. Enslaved

to or softened by pleasure. 12. Comp-lex'-i-on, s. the colour of the outward parts of the body,

particularly that of the countenance or face. 14. Cli-mate, s. region, relating to the weather as it is hot or cold,

caused by the influence of the sun. 16. Af'-fa-ble, a. easily to be spoken to, civil, condescending. 18. Be-ne"-vo-lent, a. kind.

1. The land is divided into four parts, sometimes called quarters, which are named Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.

2. Europe is by far the least of the four divisions of the world, but it is inhabited by the most active and intelligent race of people; being the centre of politeness, manners, laws, sciences, arts and commerce.

3. It has more cities, towns, and villages; and the buildings are more strong, elegant and commodious, than those of the other qnarters. It is much more populous, and better cultivated. The inhabitants are all whites.

4. The principal states of the continent of Europe are Lapland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Prussia, Holland or Batavia, Germany, Austria, Foland, Hungary, Turkey, France, Switzerland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom of Great Britaint and Ireland. * These three last mentioned countries were anciently called Scandinavia.

+ England and Scotland.

5. Lapland is a very barren country, and extremely cold. Its forests are covered chiefly with firs, and its pastures are full of rein-deer.

Lapland has no cities, but contains sixty thousand inhabitants. The Laplanders are very small; and their manners pastoral, or shepherd-like.

6. Norway is also a very cold and barren country, subject to Sweden. It is the most mountainous country in the world.

Its population is about eight hundred and fifty thousand, and its chief city is Christiana. ". The Norwegians are industrious, excellent sailors, and good soldiers.

7. Sweden is a very large country, excessively cold in the winter, and the heat almost insupportable in the summer. The inhabitants are of a robust constitution, and able to sustain the hardest labour.

8. There is no country where the women do so much work : for they till the ground, thrash the corn, and row the boats, on the sea.

9. The manners of the Swedes are polished and warlike : brave, active, friendly to science, and luxurious.

. 10. Russia, long called Muscovy, is the largest country in Europe, and, including the part in Asia, is the largest empire in the world. · 11. The population of Russia is about 41 millions : 36 in Europe, and five in Asia. Its capital is St. Petersburgh. 12. The inhabitants, in general, are robust, well-shaped, and of pretty good complexions : they are great eaters, and very fond of brandy. 13. They were formerly the most ignorant, brutish, and even the most savage people in the world; but they are now making a very rapid progress in every social and elegant improvement and refinement.

The Russians are robust, good soldiers, and inclined to commerce.

14. Denmark is a very small country, in general flat, and the soil a barren sand. The climate is very cold and severe.

15. Its population is about three millions two hundred thousand. Its capital is Copenhagen.

16. The manners of the Danes are simple and mild ; yet they are affable, brave, strong-minded, and good sailors.

17. The island of Iceland belongs to Denmark, which is very large, but extremely barren, containing only about fifty thousand inhabitants. Its capital is Skalholf

18. It produces very little corn and wood, and gardens are very rare. - The Icelanders are honest, benevolent, and hospitable.

ou valors.

CHAP. IV.

Europe continued.

19. Fer-tile, a. fruitful, producing a great quantity. 22. Dan, s. a bank or any other obstruction to confine water. (The

mother, applied most commonly to beasts.) Dikc, s. a channel made to receive water, or a mound or bank to

kvinder inundation, or keep it from overflowing. 24. Po-pu-la -tion, s. the total number of inhabitants resident in any

particular country or place.

29. In-ur'-ed, part. accustomed, habituated. 33. Vin-dic'-tive, a. given to revenge. 34. Con-cert'-ed, pret. settled in private by mutual communication.

Ab-di-cate, v. to give up a right, to resign, 36. Fas-ti”-di-ous, a. disdainful, scornful. 37. Hos'-pi-ta-ble, a. kind to strangers. 44. Gal'-lant, a. here it has two meanings, one applied to dress, and

the other to the mind: as gay, showy; brave, bold. (When this
word is used substantively, the accent is on the last syllable, sig-

nifying a person of gay and polite behaviour.) -
Cou-ra'-ge-ous, a. brave, bold, daring.
Light, a. trifing. (Bright; not heavy.)

Ex-hi-bi”-ti-on, s. a display of any thing. 46. Fi-de"-li-ty, s. honesty in dealing, firmness in loyalty. 52. Ar-ti..fi-ces, s. 22. indirect methods of attaining one's end by pre

tence, stratagem, or fraud. 56. Aus-te're, a. severe, rigid. 60. Po”'-li-tic, a. artful, cunning, relating to politics.

Pro"-bi-ty, s. approved honesty, sincerity, or veracity. 71. Ir'-ri-ta-ble, a. easily provoked, or soon angry; fretful...

19. Prussia is a very fine and fertile country, producing a great deal of flax, hemp, and corn.

20. The inhabitants are of a strong constitution, laborious, and good soldiers.

21. Before the late war with France, Prussia contained about two millions of inhabitants, but since that her number is greatly diminished, have ing lost many of her subjects in that contest, also part of her territories, which were ceded to France. Its capital is Berlin.

22. Holland or Batavia is a very small country, but more populous than any other country in the world of so small an extent.

The land is almost every where lower than the .sea, being kept out by dams and dikes.

23. The inhabitants are generally called Dutch. They surpass all the nations in the world in trade, except the English.

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