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Ionic, * Corinthian,t and Composite, or Compound. The sciences necessary for an architect are, Arithmetic, Geometry, Geography, and History.

CHAP. II.
Introduction to the Arts and Sciences,

CONTINUED.

& Ap-pli-ca’-tion, s. the act of applying. (Close study.)

Prin'-ci-pal, a. chief, essential.
Prin'-ci-pal, s, a head or chief man. A capital sum placed ont at

interest.
Prin'-ci.ple, s. the cause, source, or origin. That which denotes a

thing to be what it is. Opinion, tenet. Ad-di"-ti-on, s. the rules for adding sums together, Sub-trac'-tion, s. the rule for finding the difference between two numbers by taking away the less from the greater, and setting

down what remains. Mul-ti-pli-ca'-ti-on, s. the rule or art of increasing any one number

by another, as often as there are units in the number by which it

is increased. Di-vi"-si-on, s. the rule whereby we find how often a less number

is contained in a greater. 16. Su-per-sti"-ti-ous, a. full of idle fancies.

Kna'-yish, a. low.cunning, dishonest, tricking. 17. Pre-dic'-ti-on, s. a declaration of something future. 19. Prog-nos-ti-ca’-ti-on, s. the act of fore-knowing, or fore-showing.

Al-lu’re, v. to entice, to persuade.
Cre"-du-lous,.a. assenting to any thing proposed as an object of

belief, without examining into its truth.

* The Ionic order has its name from the Ionians, a people of Ionia, in ancient Greece. This order is a kind of mean between the robust and delicate.

† The Corinthian order is the most noble, rich, and delicate of them all; receiving its name from the Corinthians, a people of Corinth, in ancient Greece.

* The Composite or Compound, the least of the five orders of columns, so called because its capital is framed or made up of the other four. It is sometimes called the Italian or Roman Order.

20. Mag-ni-tude, s. greatness, applied to size. (Applied to sentiment,

grandeur.). 23. Con-sti-tute, v. to make, to give existence to a thing. 24. A-do-ra’-ti-on, s. the act of worshipping, including in it reverence,

esteem, and love. * 25. Om-ni"-sci-ence, s. (pro. omni-shence,) the knowledge of all things,

infinite knowledge.
Om-ni-pre”-sence, s. unbounded presence, being in all places.
Om-ni"-po-tence, s. almighty power.
Su-per-in-tend'-en-cy, s. the act of overseeing and taking care of

the interests and concerns of all created beings.
30. A"-na-lyze, v. to resolve a compound into its first principles.

8. ARITHMETIC. Arithmetic is the art of computing by numbers, and, notwithstanding the great variety of its application, it consists only of five principal rules or operations, viz. Nótation or enumeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division ; and these are the foundation of alt arithmetical operations.

9. Notation, strictly speaking, is that art of Arithmetic which teaches us how to write any number with its proper characters or figures, and also how to put them in their proper places ; likewise to read or discover, the true value of such number when written. 10. All numbers are expressible by these ten characters or figurés : one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, cypher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 y 8 9 0

11. This science is of the utmost importance; and is of such general use in all parts of life and business, that scarce any thing is to be done without it. 12. Therefore the young learner cannot be taught it too early, nor too perfectly, and he should be exercised in figures and calculations, as soon as his memory will permit.

13. Arithmetic (universal), is a name given. (by Sir Isaac Newton) to Algebra. See Algebra,

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14. Astrology. Astrology is an art that pretends to foretel future events, and to know the good or bad fortune of men, by observing the qualities or influences of the stars and planets ruling at the time of their birth.

15. Those who profess to understand Astrology, maintain that the heavens are one great volume, or book, wherein God has written the history of the world; and in which every man may read futurity, and the transactions of past times, &c.

16. This art is nothing more than fallacious or false conjectures, of superstitious or knavish men, wherewith they wish to get a little money.

17. If this art were true, why so many errors in their predictions ?. Jacob and Esau were born at the same time, under the same stars, and under the same planets, and their manners and inclinations were very different. · 18. All those who were born at the same time with the king are not monarchs; and all those that went to battle and died together, were not born under the same positions of the heavens.

19. Those who profess this art are very cautious how they utter their prognostications ; they do it in very obscure terms, in order to deceive, which terms may be applied to all things, times, and places ; and thus allure credulous people to their ruin.

20. Astronorny. Astronomy is that grand science which teaches us the knowledge of the celestial or heavenly bodies, their magnitudes, motions, and distances.

21. Astronomy, among all the sciences studied by man, may be esteemed the most excellent' and most sublime; for there is no other knowledge acquired by the light of

nature that teaches us truer or juster notions of the Supreme Being than Astronomy. 22. Nothing supplies us with more forcible and convincing arguments of the Being of a God than our contemplation of the heavenly bodies.

23. By Astronomy we discover the wonderful harmony of nature, wherewith the frame and structure of all created beings are linked and knit together, to constitute the great machine of the universe.

24. No sciences lead the mind of man sooner into an admiration and adoration of his Maker ; for who can contemplate so many immense bodies, endowed with heavenly light, so beautiful to the eye and amusing to the mind; or who can consider their mutual intercourses, regular motions, determined calculations, their revolutions and periods, all settled by a divine law with such admirable harmony, but must cry out with Dávid, “ The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth his handy work !” or with Cicero,* who was only guided by the light, of reason, “ Nothing is more evident, nothing more plain, when we look up to the heavens and contemplate the bodies there, than that there is a Deity of most excellent wisdom who governs them.”

25. It is by this science that we are clearly convinced of the existence, wisdom, power, goodness, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, and superintendency of the Supreme Being, over, and in all his works!

26. It is to Astronomy that we owe the regular disposition of our time; that we learn the true measure of the year, and can give an account of actions according to the exact order in which they happened.

27. Biography. Biography is the history of the lives of eminent men, the reading of which is not only pleasing and entertaining, but it is of the greatest use, for it gives light into human nature, and excites us to imitate the actions of the good, and to avoid those of the wicked. '

* A great Roman orator,

28. Botany. Botany is that part of natural history which treats of plants, their several kinds, forms, virtues, and uses; and is a very delightful study.

29. Chemistry. Chemistry is the art of separating several substances, found in mixed bodies, by means of fire; and composing new bodies by the mixture of different substances or ingredients.

30. The chief object of Chemistry is to analyze natural bodies, reduce them to their first principles, and to discover their hidden virtues.

CHAP. III.
Introduction to the Arts and Sciences,

CONTINUED.

31. E-laps'-ed, pret. passed away, gone.

Me"-mo-ra-ble, a. worthy to be remembered. 36. Par-ti"-ci-pate, v. to partake, to have a share in, 40. Fe-li"-ci-ty, s. happiness. A1, Po-li"-ti-cal, a. relating to politics, or the science or art of go.

vernment. 46. Py’-ra-mid, s, a solid, standing on a square basis and terminat

ing at the top in a point, Cu’-bi cal, a. solid ; belonging to, or having the properties of

a cube. A cube is a solid body consisting of six equal ..square sides, ,

31. CHRONOLOGY. Chronology is that art which teaches the method of computing time and distinguishing its parts, so as to determine what period has elapsed since any memorable event,

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