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READING AND PUNCTUATION.
womandane. 3. De-li"-be-rate.ly, ad. steadily, in a circumspect manner. 5. Bois'-te-rous, a. violent, furious. Sen'-tence, s. any number of words so arranged as to form a coma
plete period. In-sig-ni"fi-cant, a, wanting meaning. Par'-ti cle, s. a term in grammar, signifying a word unvaried with
cases, and is used merely to connect and join together sen
· tences. (Any small part or portion of a greater substance.) 6. Tone, s. sound. Voice, s. a sound produced in the throat and mouth of an animal,
by which he expresses his ideas, * For'-mal, a. ceremonious, too precise. 7. In-ter-ro-ga'-ti-on, s. (in grammar,) a point used after a question.
(A question.) Ad-mi-ra’-ti-on, s. (in grammar,) a point or stop, denoting that the
sentence before it implies wonder or astonishment. (Surprize.) 9. Ca'-dence, so a fall, decline, or descent. Lan'-guage, s. a set of words agreed upon by any people, to com:
municate their thoughts with.
WHEN you read, hold up your head, and standstill, with your face towards the person who hears you.
2. Take great care to pronounce every letter and syllable articulately: that is, clearly, distinctly, and
* Sounds emitted from the mouth are either articulate or inarticulate. They are said to be articulate when several sounds join together and form some intelligent word or words, and inarticulate when they are not formed into distinct words, such as the barking of dogs, the bleating of sheep, the singing of birds, &c.
fully. For this purpose, open your mouth freely, and speak deliberately.
3. Let not your voice be loud and boisterous, but soft and gentle.
4. Read neither too fast, nor too slow, but take the medium, or good time, and read with sprightliness and energy, that is, with spirit and firmness.
5. Begin every sentence gently. Slide over all the insignificant particles : such as, and, but, if, or, as, so, by, in, to, of, &c. and reserve the stress of your voice for words of more importance.
6. Let the tone of your voice, in reading be the same as in speaking. Do not change the natural and easy sound with which you speak in conversation for that formal and unnatural tone, which some people assume in reading.
7. Relieve your voice at every stop; but be sure 'to make no stops where the sense admits of none.
The stops or points are made as follow :-a comma, thus (,) a semicolon, thus ( ;) a colon, thus (:) a period, thus (.) a note of interrogation, thus (?) a note of admiration, thus (!). .
8. At a comma, you are to stop whilst you can count one; at a semicolon, two; at a colon, three; at a full stop, four; and also about the same time at the notes of interrogation and admiration.
9. It is very cominon with many in reading, at the close of a sentence or a full stop, to drop the voice in a uniform manner, or in a low tone, generally called “cadence ;' but nothing tends more to destroy the beauty and strength of the language, than a regular pursuit of this method..
· 10. But all these rules may be comprised in the following short sentence, which I would particularly advise my young readers to commit to memory
Understand and feel the subject, and NATURE will direct you how to speak it.
Sus-pend'-ed, a. kept up; hung up by any thing. . Spi'-rit, s. energy, liveliness. (The human soul; the mind.) 4. Art. s. some useful invention, or a collection of certain rules from
- observation and experience, by which any thing may be per
formed, or any end obtained. * 5. Re-li'-gi-on, s. (pro, re-lid-jon,) that worship which belongs to
God, when considered as our Creator, Preserver, and Benefactor.
As'-pect, s. look or appearance. 7. Vir-tue, s. goodness,
Ho"-nour, s. reputation, nobleness. 9. Pi'-ously, ad. religiously, acting dutifully to God and our parents. 11. Blos'-soms, s. the flowers on trees or plants which afterwards turn
to fruit. Au’-tumn, s. the third season of the year; the time when fruits
ripen and are gathered in, being the months of August, Sep
tember and October.
The Comma is the shortest pause of any, being only momentary, or while you can count one.
In the following sentences or examples, observe to keep your voice suspended at a comma, and pronounce your words distinctly and with spirit.
· Art is frequently confounded with Science. They are distinguished by their objects. . If the object be attended by the application of rules, or acquire practice, then it is an art; but if considered only with respect to its different appearances, or the collection of obser vations relative thereto, it is a science. The Arts are distinguished into liberal and mechanic. The liberal arts are those which consist in the application or exercise of the mind; the mechanic, those which consist in the exercise of the body or hand.
1. Do unto others, as you would have others do unto you.
2. Be more ready to forgive, than to return an injury.
3. Never give pain to any man, without a prospect of doing good.
4. No art can be obtained, but' by diligence.
5. Religion does not require a gloomy, but a cheerful aspect.
6. An upright mind will never be at a loss to discern what is just and true, lovely, honest, and of good report.
7. The man of virtue and honour will be trusted, relied on, and esteemed.
8. The great business of life is to be employed in doing justly, loving mercy, and walking humbly with our Creator.
9. To live soberly, righteously, and piously, comprehend the whole of our duty.
10. If we delay till to-morrow what ought to be done to-day, we overcharge the morrow with a burden which belongs not to it.
11. If the spring put forth no blossoms, in summer there will be no beauty, and in autumn no
fruit: so, if youth be trifled away without improvement, manhood will be contemptible, and old age · miserable.
12. In-flec'-ti-on, s. a modulation or change from high to low.
grammar the variation or change of the endings of a word.)