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so many things in vain, for the sake of Christianity must have beent if it be yet in vain ? to no purpose fince you might have avoid

ed them by submitting, to circumcifion and the law. And will you

thus lose the benefit of all the persecutions you have endured, and render them wholly vain and

ineffectual ? 5. He therefore that 6. When I was with you, and conferred miniftreth to you the the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit upon spirit, and worketh mi. you, and wrought several miracles in the racles amongsi yout, doth midit of you, did I confer and do them as be it by the cuorks of the a preacher of the neceflity of the law of law, or by the bearing Moses to you, and to confirm your obligaof faith?

tions to observe it; or as a preacher of the doctrine of justification by faith, and to

confirm and ettablish you in the belief of it? 6. Even as Abraham As a preacher of the doctrine of jurbelieved God, and it was tification by faith. And thus Abraham counted to him for righ himself, the father of our nation was juftiteousness,

fied; for when God promised him a numerous feed in his extreme old age, he believed in the Lord; and the scripture exprefly says, it was counted to him for righteouf

nefs, Gen. xv. 6. “OBSERVATIONS on the Doctrine of JUSTIFICATION. To reconcile thefe Judaising converts to this doctrine of justifi. cation by faith, the apostle with g:eat address and strength fheus them, that it was by this very principle of faith, that Abraham, the father of the Jew.th nation, was himself justified. Abraham and Sarah were, according to the course of nature, absolutely incapable of baving any children. Aud upon his complaint to God that he was childless, God said to him ; " he that shall come forth out of thine

own pression of some hope that it might be otherwise. • Have ye suffered To

many things for Christ in vain, if you will finally render them vain, • and not prevent it by a steady adherence to the purity of the gospel doc• trine ? I greatly fear for you, but am loth to give you up as wholly loft."

Ver, s. Though St. Paul speaketh here in the third person, “ he that mi“ niftreth to you the fpirit,” yet I think it is evident he ineans himself, who was the instrument of their conversion, and of conferring these extraordinary gifts upon them; and he appeals to them, that he conferred them only to citablish the doétrine of justification by faith alone, and not to bring them under bondage to the law of Moses; and this doctrine of justification by faith, he proceeds to thew was abundantly confirmed by the Old Testamenty and that Abrahamn himself was thus justified.

Ver. 6. The word saggio In, rendered here counted, is translated in Rom. iv. 6. imputed. And from hence comes the expression of imputed righteout:ness; the word fignifies to place somewhat to account, and that either as a miatter of justice or favour, om. iv. 4. " To him that worketh is the 18“ ward not imputed of grace but of debt;" in w.uich the imputation of boile kinds is exprefly mentioned.

s own bowels shall be thine heir." Abraham might have objected the natural imposibility of the thing, but he believed in the Lord, believed that God was able to give him a son, and would do it in accomplishment of bis promise. What was the confequence of this? Why God counted to him this his belief of his promise, and trust in his power and goodness, for righteoufness. God was so well pleased with this eminent instance of his faith and piety, that he accepted and blessed him as a truly righteous person ; his very faith in the promise and power of God was his righteousness, that which juftified him, and upon account of which God accepted and blessed him as a just person. This is the express do&trine of scripture, which cannot be evaded by the systems, schemes, and comments of fallible men, though it hath been often represented as erroneous and false; whilft the scriptures remain it will ever be true, that Abraham believed God, and that it, this very belief in God, was accounted to him for righteousness.

“The expreffion of imputing righteousness, is but twice mentioned in fcrip ure, and in neither place can it poflibly fignify the imputation of one person's righteousness to another, so that he who is unrighteous in himself, should be esteemed and accepted as a juft and righteous man for the sake of another person's righteousness; the im. putation of righteousness never once means this in the New Tel. Lament, In the first place it evidently denotes the pardon of 'sin, Rom. iv. 6, 7, 8. " David allo describeth the bletedness of the " man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, " saying, Blessed are they whole iniquities are forgiven,--and to

wbom the Lord will not impure fin :' In which passage nothing can be more evident, than that she imputi g righteousness, the not imputing fin, and the forgiving iniquics, are equivalent expressions, and mean intirely the same thing, and they all of them denote jusrifica ion ; because not to impute fin is to pardon it, and to pardon fin is to impote rightcousness, i. e, to esteem, and accept and treat the person pardoned as a righteous and juit man that hath never of: fended.

The fame expression of imputing righteousness is also used in the eleventh verse of the fourth to th Ronans. “ Abraham received 5 the fign of circumcifion, a seal of the righteousness of the faith “ which he had being yet uncircumcised, that he might be the father “ of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised, that

righteousness might be imputed unto them also,” i. e. ' that their ! faith, might be imputed unto them for righteousness,' or,' that • thev mi ht be accepied and treated of God as righteous upon ac

count, or for the sake, of their faith : That this is the meaning is plain fron the apostle's reasoning, which is to Mew that the uncir. cumcised Gen'iles were to be juftified the same way as Abraham was whilit he was uncircumcised. Now, says the apostle, we fay " that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness, ver. 9. his faith was his righteousness, for which God accepted him as a just perfon even whilft he was uncircumcised, “ that he might be the ç fa her of all them that believe, though hey be not circumcised, skat righteousness might be imputed to them also," i. e. that

they

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they might be justified by faith as Abraham was. Now this is good sense to say, that God, by imputing faith to Abraham whillt he was uncircumcised, newed his purpose of imputing faith also to the believing uncircumcised Gentiles for their justification. But if the imputing righteousness means the imputing Chrift's righteousness in ibis place, the apostle's discourfe is incoherent, and proves nothing; for then the case will itand thus : Faith was imputed to : Abraham for righteousness, in uncircumcision, that he might be the father of believing circumcised Gentiles, that Christ's righteousness might be imputed to them. Now if Abraham was justified by faith, and the believing Gentiles are justified by Christ's righteoulness, then they are justified two different ways; of consequence Abraham could uot be their father, nor they his children,

“But though I am not arguing against the doctrine of Christ's imputed righteousness for justification, and do not assert that such an exprelion is incapable of a good meaning, yet unquestionably this is not the sense of the paffiges I have been explaining; nor indeed is it ever once said in any fingle age of the New Testament, that the righteousness of Christ is imputed to any person: No; the expresiions used by St. Paul are, “ to impute righteousness," i. e. to pardon fin; and, more generally, “ to impute faith for righteous. is ness.” Thus, “ Abraham believed God, and it,” his faith, " was imputed to him for righteousness;", and the reason of this the apofle gives in the next verle, or draws this inference from it”

An Account of Proposals made for the Benefit of his Majesty's Naval

Service: Shewing their general Object and Tendency, -the future Supply of Timber for the Purposes of the Royal Navy; Means of contributing to its Preservation, -the Well-being of the DockYards, Ships, Magazines, and Stores; with the reciprocal Advantages and Conveniences of its Individuals. Interspersed with Admiralty and Navy Board Regulations, and occasional Remarks of some of its Honourable Members. Together with certain other Transactions. In a Letter to the Right Honourable the Earl of Sandwich, First Lord-Commissioner of the Admiralty. By Yesman Lott, late Agent to the Royal-Hospital at Plymouth. is. 6d. Owen.

Eiçe iterum Crispinus! Poor Mr. Lott, whose lot [forgive us, reader, the pun] is hard indeed, hath here again* fubmit. mitted his case to the First Lord of the Admiralty and the publie; to the latter of which we recommend him as a man, who appcars, from his own account, to have made the interest of his King and country his study, in respect to the particular deparunent in which he was for many years employed. We cannot help expreffing our concern, also, that any peculiarities of perfonal behaviour, in the proper discharge of his duty, should be thought by his superiors sufficient to cancel the merits of luch long and allowed service,

• Sce our Review for April laft, page 2850

I s.

Letire, de Monsieur Des Enfans, a Madame Montagu, 8vo,

Davis,
A Letter from Monsieur Des Enfans to Mrs. Montagu, translated

by Mrs. Griffith. 8vo. IS 6 d. Cadell.
The late Lord Chesterfield, in those celebrated Letters,
which have juftly reflected to much odium on his memory,
has, it seems, cait a very injurious reflection on the character
of the admired author of Telemachus, M. de Fenelon, Arch-
bishop of Cambray; whom he has represented as a convenient
proveditor for the pleasures of Louis XIV. This reflection Mr.
Des Enfans conceives to be so highly derogatory from the amia-
ble character of that illustrious ecclefiaftic, that he has here
vented his indignation against the letter-writer, in terins not the
most guarded and polite *, however merited on the part of his
Lord'hip.-To aslist him, in exposing Lord Chesterfield's breach
of Christian charity in this particular, Mrs. Griffith takes in-
ftant fire at the Frenchman's fury, and declares her fovereign
contempt and abhorrence for many of the precepts and patlages
contained in his Lordship’s Letters; + one of which appears to
be this reflection on Monsieur de Fenelon : on which M. Des
Enfans has fo freely commented, and whose Comment this Lady
has taken the liberty of extending and illustrating - In the
Memoirs of Madam de Maintenon is inserted the following
Letter from Penelon to that Lady.

" Your zeal for the King's falvation ought not to make you pass those bounds which Providence seeins to have prescribed to you ; we must wait the Almighty's tiine. The true method of inspiring his Majesty with heavenly grace, is not to fatigue him with exhortations, but to edify him, to gain an entrance into his heart by degrees, and by the patience and gentleness of your conduct. " Your endeavours to touch his heart, to open

his

eyes, and to warn him against certain snares, to give himn the counsels of peace and moderation, of compassion for his people, and love for the Church, as well as your zeal to find out proper directors for his conscience, require great attention and much prudence.

* You are the Centinel of God, in the midit of Irael. Love the King, and be obedient to him, as Sarah was to Abraham. Respect him from the bottom of your heart, and look upon him as your Lord, by the immediate order of Providence. Vol. V.

E

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“ Ic

* “Hc elevates,” says he, " his brazen front, and in the effusion of a boundles effurance, of which I have seen but few instances, &e.”-Again; “ There is as much ignorance as malice in the turn Lord C. gives M. de Fenelon's letter."

† No wonder! His Lordihip has declared, that in all his life-time he never me, with a fenfibie woman.

“ It is true, Madam, that your fituation is enigmatical; but it is God who has ordained it should be so. You neither desired nor chose · it, nor even conceived an idea of it yourself; it is the work of God:

he hides his fecrets from you, and from the world alto, which would be much amazed if you should reveal to it, what you have done in confidence to me. It is God's mystery, who has been pleased to exalt you for the fanctification of those who were born in the highest ftate of elevation. You fill the place of a Queen, and yet have no more privilege nor authority than the meanest subject.”

And now, Madam, says M. Des Enfans, please to observe the Comment, which his Lordship makes upon this Letter in the 26ift of his Letters addressed to his Son.

“My dear Friend, “ Since my last to you, I have read Madame Maintenon's letters ; and am sure they are genuine ; and they both entertained and informed me. They have brought me acquainted with the character of that able and artful lady; whom, I am convinced, that I now know, much better than her Directeur, the Abbé de Fenelon (afterwards Archbishop of Cambray) did, when he wrote her the 18th letter ; and I know himn the better too for that letter. The Abbé, though tyrimful of the divine love, had a great mind to be First Mi. nister and Cardinal, in order, no doubt, to have the opportunity of doing the more good. His being Directeur at that time to Madaine Maintenon, seemed to be a good Atep towards those views. herself. upon him for a saint, and he was weak enough to believe it : he, on the other hand, would have put himself upon her for a saint too, which, I dare say, she did not believe; but both of them knew, that it was necessary for them to appear saints to Louis the XIVth, who they knew to be a bigot. It is to be presumed, nay, indeed, it is plain by that 185th letter, that Madame Maintenon had hinted to her Directeur some fcruples of conscience, with relation to her commerce with the King; and which I humbly apprehend to have been only fome scruples of prudence, at once to flatter the bigot character, and increase the desires of the King. The pious Abbé, frightened out of his wi:s, left the King shonld impute to the Directeur any scruples or difficulties which he might mect with on the part of the lady, writes her the above-mentioned letter ; in which he not only bids her not teaze the King by advice and exhortations, but to have the ute most submiffion to his will; and, that she may not mistake the nature of that submission, he tells her, it is the same that Sarah had for Abraham; to which submiffion Isaac perhaps was owing No bawd could have written a more seducing letter to an innocent country giri, than the Directeur did to his Penitent; who, I dare say, had no uccafion for his good advice. Those who would justify the good Disecteur, alias the pimp, in this affair, must not artempt to do.it by saying, that the King and Madame Maintenon were at ikat time privately married; that the Directeur knew it; and that this was the meaning of his enigina. That is absolutely impullible ; for that pri

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