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The work is divided into four chapters, under the following heads : the first on Nature and Interpofitions.-Second, on Divine Love.-Third, on the true Foundation of Theology.-Fourth, on Human Nature. To which is added, what the author calls, a Psychological Stricture. --Referring the logical and theological reader to the work itself, for the particulars of what is advanced in the three first chapters, we shall give a specimen of the author's force and mode of ratiocination from the fourth chapter on human nature; being persuaded that, with respect to readers in general at least, the poet is in the right, who says

* The proper study of mankind is man"? To the right understanding of even this chapter, however, it is previously necessary to mention the general design of the preceding; which is briefly summed up at the end of the third, in the following corollary.

* COROLLARY III. << Seeing the generality of mankind, have ever afsented to the doc. trine of the existence of a God, and the immortality of the soul, in a manner inuch stronger than could be expected, were they guided principally by oral or written tradition; by bope or fear; by ratiocina. tion; or even by all these conjointly; they are therefore influenced thus to allent, by a spiritual sensation, organ, or medium in the mind; adapted to the perception of those celestial objects ; in like manner, as is the eye to colours, and the ear to sounds. And it appears, finally, that this divine energy in the human understanding, is, THE TRUE FOUNDATION OF THEOLOGY." • It is this a divine energy, spiritual sensation, organ or me* diuin in the mind,” which our author denominates a supernatural something in man, which answers the end of whar forne other writers ftile the efficacy of divine grace.-As to the natural part of man, he makes it out to be fomething infernatural indeed. But it is impossible to do this writer justice in any other words than his own.

In my last chapter, I fully demonstrated a divine principle in the mind of map : but, alas ! in adjusting the question above recited, a scene of another kind will open to our view; nothing less, than the corruption of the world; the depravation of human nature ; and the evi&tion of an evil principle in the mind likewise; at perpetual strife with the good, for the empire of the human underftanding the difcuffion of these articles being inevitably blended with my principal Lubject; I shall, therefore, speak of them, as occasion offers. And First; "§. 2. The corruption of the world, is so evident, that it scarcely Vol. V.


needs needs a description. The ancient heathen were so sensible of the depravity of human nature, that their poets, under the fi&tion of the golden, the filver, the brazen, and the iron

, ages, have pointed out, in The most beautiful language, the gradual lapse of the aborigines of mankind, from a life of perfect innocence and felicity, into a llate of wickednefs and misery. Indeed, we fee, from disial experience, that the greater part of mankind, are fo far from being good and dire tuous, that they don't fo much as desire or intend to be for

" If we take a survey of wild and barbarous nations; the blackest zices offend our eyes : revenge, there, wüh all its cruel arts, triumphaot reigns; accompanied with fraud and violence of every kind, continually to rouse it: and liberty, the birth-right of every mortal! ia wrested from whole empires at once, for ages togerber,

so But we need not travel to distant climes, in queft of human deprayity : there is abundant evidence of it nearer home, in civilized na. tions, and nearer fill, reader; -eyed in thine own breaft.-And yer as wicked as the actions of mankind are ; it is probably but a small portion of what might be expected, were the reitraint of the magis, frate's sword removed; which, like a dam, prevents a mighty inun. dation of iniquity from overflowing the world,

“ But would we know human nature without restraint? we must visit the palaces of arbitrary princes, and lawless grandees: generally, of all men living, the most abandoned.-Nero, and certain other Roman Emperors, I pass over in litence, as being well known : but thall, however, instance Muley Abdollah, late Emperor of Morocca, with his father Muley Ismael, the preceding Emperor ; both of whom, from mere wantonness, flew thousands of their subjects, with their own hands; and seem in all their actions, to have subítituted gubim for reason.-Nor shall I omit the Popes of Rome ; who, glutted with the blood of millions, and fill thirsting after more ; have ne. vertheless the assurance to call themfelves the Vicars of that meek and lowly personage, who, so far from spilling the blood of others, shed his own; for the advantage and exaltation, even of his enemies, – Thefe, reader, are but a few instances amongst 4 multitude; if we may credit history.

From this brief but dismal draught of human nature, 'tis eafy to be perceived where the evil lies : namely; in the heart of man. 'For in vain would temptation folicit us from without, were there no trai. for within, And yet, we are not tp suppose, that 'tis merely the in tellc&t that is thus treacherous to us; but some evil principle connected with it: for, if it were the iatelleet merely of įrfelt, the poison would be effential to it; which is not the case ; seeing the mind may, with the urmoit eafe, be confidered as existing apart from it. In its relation, therefore, to the intellect, it is a mode of the iuberent kind; and being of itself subjected to other modes, is a spiritual Juance : thus vitality, and all the vicious tempers with which it is curit, are the attributes of ir."

Of this writer's manner of applying scripture to his philosophy, we shall give an instance in the following parenthesis.


* * Our Lord afjirts, that (l) from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickednels; deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blafphemy, pride, foolishness; all these evil things (faith the Saviour

bf mankind) come from within, and defile the man. The Apostle * Paul denominates it (m) another law in his members, warring against # the I w of his mind. And plainly implies that it is a (spiritual) * fubitance, by calling it (n) the body of death : (0) so then, adds

the Apostle, with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with * the flesh, the law of fin. And in his (p) epistle to the Ephesians, * ho calls it the Old Man which is corrupr according to the deceitful * lasts; thereby implying again that it is a substance ; or why would be

mewnymically call it " Man?" The like may be observed of the in*ternal principle of divine grace, (in Christians at least ;) whieh in the * fame epistle and (2) chapter be denominates “the New Man.”

(To be continued.)


A Paraphrafe and Notes, on the Epißle of St. Paul to the Galatians

and Ephesians: With Doctrinal and Practical Observations. Together with a Critical and Practical Commentary on the tžva Epifles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians. By the late Learned Samuel Chandler, D. D. Published from the Author's MS. by Nathaniel White. 410. 12s. Dilly.

The character and abilities of the late Dr. Chandler are so well known, that it would be fuperfluous to expatiate on them, in recommendation of the work before us. Let it fuffice to fay, therefore, that it appears, as well from the internal evidence which the work bears in itself, as from the affurances given by the Editor in the preface, that it is the genuine production of the learned writer to whom it is attributed. As a Specimen of his paraphrafe, poets, and observations, we shall give those on the first fix verses of the third chapter of the Galatians.

“ The apostle having, by a great variety of arguments, vindicated his own apofleship and doctrine, and given the Galatians a hort but clear account, of the method of jullification ; now comes 10 reason with them more directly on this important article, and to set before them the folly of departing from the fimplicity of the Christian faith, and fubmitting to the bondage of the Jewith law

for juftification.

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PARAPHRASE. CH A P. III. " O foolish and senseless Galatians, what

1 O foolish Galatians, impostor by his arts and fubtleties hath so who hath bewitched you, bewitched you, that instead of obeying the that you should not obey truth of the gospel doctrine, ye should have the truth, before whose recourse to the law of Moses for justificaeyes Jesus Chrift hath tion ? Especially since the doctrine of Christ been evidently set forth, crucified hath been represented to you in crucified among you ? the plainelt and clearest manner.

2 This only would I • Answer me as to this single article ; learn of you : Received Did you receive the Spirit in his extraorye the Spirit by the dinary gifts, by your conformity to the law works of the law, or by of Moses, or by hearing and obeying the the bearing of faith? golpel doctrine?

3. Arc

Ver. I. Avonto.. Foolis Galatians. } The original word properly signiftes

persons void of confideration and understanding : And it is with great juitice here applied to the Galatians, since there could not be a greater inítance and argument of want of thought and reflection, than for persons in their circumitances to forsake the doctrine of the apostles, and the purity of the Christian faith, and to suffer themselves to be led away by false leducers ; to place their dependance on the unprofitable rites of the Jewish law for justification, and being constituted the members of the church of God.

T“ up.coç eßaonars. Who bath bewitched you.} Basriam, fignifies in the belt writers' to envy., Sovepes cufasa xai Toçapıçois Basxane!! προαιρεμενες»

is the character of the Athenians, Æl. V. H.' 1. ii. c. 13. and thus it may fignify here ; ' who hath fo envied you, or looked with lo é evil an eye on you, as to turn you away from the truth?' but as the word properly signifies to corrupt and deceive the eyes, and is frequently transferrs to the mind, to denote the deception of it by evil arts; cur translation fzems to be just and proper. What impostor hath 10 bewitched you, as to . persuade you to exchange the purity of the gospel for Jewish rites For tiis is the meaning of not obeying ebe iruth, i. e. deserting the apostle's doctrine of justification by faith, and expecting it from the law of Mofes.

Before whose eyes Christ bath been evidently set forth, crucified amongst you. ? If this rendering should be judged belt, the meaning is, that the death of cmit had been as clearly and plainly represented to them, in its certainty sind effects, as if they had actually seen him crucified with their eyes; but tie original will bear another translation, which I prefer ; thus, before • whole eyes Christ crucified hath been evidently tet forth amongst you,'i.'e. plainly and cleared preached amongst you. The expression, xal ophanec, before whose eyes, is used metaphorically by the best writers, to denote' the clear discovery and perception of any thing: Thus sv opo annois awpa to door, malum quasi jam prajens videbat, Æl. iji. 26. And thus Chritt crucified was evidently set forth before the Galatians eyes; clearly repreferte.I to their minds, as though they had seen it, by the preaching of the apostle Paul; having thus rebuked them, he proceeds to argue with them..

Ver. 2. By ibe Spirit, the apostle here means, not what divines call the ordinary affiítances of the Spirit, but those extraordinary gifts of God, which were frequently bestowed on the first converts, to assure them of their juftirication, and being constituted the children of God; which gifts are expresly called the Spirit or the Holy Ghost. Thus when Peter preached to Cornemus, Is the Holy Ghost fell on those who heard him," Acs x. 44. for it

is added, they fpoke with tongues, and magnified God," ver.46. Thus ki hefu, “ The Holy Ghost came on the disciples, and they {poke with


3. Are ye fo foolish, “Unquestionably by obeying the gospel having begun in the fpi- doctrine. And can you, who have thus rerit, are ge now made ceived the spirit of adoption, upon your fire perfe&t in the fielb? conversion, as the consequence of your faith

in Christ, be so ftapid as to imagine, that your juftification is not compleat, unless you conform to the fleshly ceremonies of the

law of Mofes ? 4. Have ye faffered “If this were true, all your paft sufferings

for « tongues and prophefied," Acts xix. 6. and when the apostles at the feast of Pentecoft, were filled with the Holy Ghost, and fpoke with tongues, Peter exprefly declares, “ This is that which was spoken by Joel ; I will “ pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh,” A&ts ii. 17.

Now these gifts of the Spirit were communicated as the full evidence and proof, that those who received them were constituted the people and children of God; thus the Holy Ghost fell on Cornelius, a Gentile ; upon which the Jewish Christians made this reflection : “ Then hath God also to the Gen« tiles-granted repentance unto life,” Acts xi. 18. Thus Peter at the council at Jerusalem declares; “ God bare the Gentiles witness, giving “ them the Holy Ghost even as he did unto us; and put no difference be

tween us and them,” Aets xv. 8. i. e. declaring the Gentiles equally members of the Christian church, and heirs to falvation by Christ with the Jews. Hence the Spirit in his extraordinary gifts, is called the spirit of adoption, Rom. viii. 15. because the granting it was an inttance of God's peculiar favour, and of his owning himself the father and friend of those to whom he vouchsafed the Spirit.

Now in this view, the apostle's question appears with great propriety and strength. Did ye receive that fpirit, which was the fullett evidence of your being jultified, accepted, and received as the children and people of God, by conformity to the law of Moses, or by embracing the doctrine of the gospel? If by embracing the doctrine of the gospel, then you became justified by embracing ihat do&trine, and consequently need not conform to the law of Mofes, in order to obtain justification. The argument in form is this.

Those who are justified by faith in Chrift, need not conform to the law of Mofes for justification ; but Chriftians are juitified by faith. Therefore, &c.

That Christians are justified by faith is thus proved.

Those who have received by faith that fpirit from God, which is the great evidence of their justification, are justified by faith ; but Christians have received. Therefore, &c.

This argument is ftri&tly conclusive, and I would only observe with respect to the expresfion, by the bearing of jailb, that axon may be rendered

obedience ;' in which rense axew is frequently ufed ; thus, This is my bea loved Son, bear se bim, i. e. obey liim, Matt. xvii. 5. So Alian. V. H. 1. iii. c. 16. and thus the expreflion will mean, . by obedience to the gospel.' As the apoítle knew that they received the spirit by obeying the gospel doctrine, he proceeds to other questions. Ver.

3. To begin in the Spirul.) means their receiving the extraordinary gifts of it, immediately upon their believing in Chrift, as the evidence of their juftification and acceptance with God, and the being made perfell in the fieb, denotes their having recourse to those ceremonies of the law of Mofes, which reached only to the tesh, to perfect or compleat their justification ; but this the apoille judly represents as a foolish imagination, and proceeds to tell them it was a reproach upon their forrrer behaviour.

Ver. 4. The words, frye mzieken, if it here: in vain,} are a kind of genteel and tender recalling what he had said immediately before, and an ex

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