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Jan. 30th, The morning clear, but intensely cold; wind S. E. ; barometer 30 76 ; thermometer funk to go, that is, 23° below the freezing point; a degree of cold which, I apprehend, has been but rarely experienced in this climate, being 3° 1 below that of the remarkable frost in the year 1739. On examining the liquors on the garden wall I found, to my astonishment, all of them, except the fpirit of wine and there, perfectly congealed : the first time I had ever seen these liquors in a solid form. Being desirous to see the effect of a high degree of artificial, added to the natural cold that now prevailed, the thermometer was immersed into the frigorific mixture ; but though it sunk the quicksilver, in a few seconds, into the bulb of the thermometer, yet the result was by no means adequate to that of the experiment of of Profeffor Braun at Petersburg: for although the quicksilver in the thermometer, and that in the phial, contracted a film on the top, yet it remained quite fluid below,

Jan. 31st to Feb. ift, The barometer at 29; the thermometer only at 16°, that is, 17° below the point of congelation; the atmos: phere serene and pleasant.

« Feb. 2d, Wind S.; barometer 291; a warm, misty morning, succeeded by a pleasant spring-like day, ushered in a very mild and a greeable thaw, the thermometer from 9° being got to 40°; so great was the change of temperature in so short a space of time! And it seems worthy of observation, that the epidemic cold, which had prevailed universally during the preceding mild season, suddenly disappeared in the late intense frost; but now began to re-appear, together with rheu. matic affections and other diseases of the former period.”

“ XLI. An Account of the Magnetical Machine contrived by the late Dr. Gowin Knight, F. R. S. and presented to The Royal Society, by John Fothergill, M. D.F.R.S.

“ XLII, Demonstrations of Two Theorems mentioned in Article XXV, of the Philosophical Transactions for the Year 1775. In a Letter from Charles Hutten, Esq. F. R. S. to the Reverend' Dr. Horsley, Sec. R. S.

" XLIII. Experiments made in order to ascertain the Nature of fome Mineral Substances : and in particular, to see how far the Acids ( of Sea-Salt and of Vitriol contribute to mineralize Metallic and other Substances. By Peter Woulfe, F. R. S.”

To this Volume is added a catalogue of the presents of natural curiosities, books, drawings, &c. made to the Royal Society, during the year 1775, with the names of the donors annexed.


X Como

A Commentary, with Notes, on the four Evangelifts and the 1975 of

the Apostles ; together with a new Translation of St. Paul's first Epifle to the Corinthians, with a Paraphrase and Notes. To which are added other Theological Pieces. By Zachariah Pearce, D. D. late Lord Bishop of Rochester. To the whole is prefixed, "Some Account of his Lordship's Life and Charailer, written by himself. Published from the original Manuscripts, By John Derby, A. M. his Lordship's Chaplain, and Rector of Southfleet and Longfield. 2 vols. 4to, 'Cadell.

(Continued from Page 43.) Numerous as are the commentators on the New Teftainent, and justly celebrated as are those of other nations *, the writers' of this country are by no means inferiour either in point of merit or reputation. The most popular of our English com-ments, are those of Dr. Hainmond, Dr. Whitby, and Mr. Locke; the two former on the whole New Testament, and the latter on some of St. Paul's epiftles only.

In the annotations of Dr. Hammond we are presented with a copious treasure of scriptural learning ; always generally useful, tho' not always equally necessary to the explanation of the particular passage, on which it is displayed. It has been pertinently said of this learned divine, that, like a generous host, he fets before us, on most occasions, his whole stock of provifions, when a small part would have answered every necessary purpose of refreshment or repaft.

Dr. Whitby has displayed a fund of Greek knowledge, and has done, perhaps, as much as a inan could do, whole judgment was to much inferiour to his learning. In this particular lais comment differs from that, of Mir. Locke; whose fort, on the contrary, lay in point of judginent, which carried him also as far as a man could well be expected to go, who was so deal fective in the knowledge of the original language.

It appears to have been these imperfections in these popular connents that first induced our learned prelate to undertake the present commentary. This design, however, was under taken so long ago and has been so long in the execution, that a number of respectable labourers in the same vineyard have, in

At the head of these may be placed the learned Dutchman Hugo Gros tius, next to whose observations on the New Testament might be recommended the translation and notes of Beaufobre and L'Enfant; and particularly their general preface ; in which an explicit account is given of these several particulars, relative to the Jews and other ancient nations, which are necellary to a competent understanding of the text of the New Testa. ment. This general preface, if we mistake not, has been translated into English.


the mean time, exercised their ingenuity, and displayed their ta-
lents with the like success. Hence it is that a number of judi-
cious and excellent remarks, to be found in the present com-
ment, have lost the advantage of originality by the delay of
their publication ; a Lardner, a Doddridge, a Chandler, and
some others, having explained the faine texis nearly in the
same manner as is done by the Bishop of Rochester. Not that
this circumstance derogates from the merit, tho' it may from
the novelty, of the work *. --At the same time there is a cha-
racteristic conciseness and fimplicity in the comment before us,
that gives the reverend scholiaft, in our opinion, an advantage
over inost of his fellow divines. Certain it is, that, in dif-
playing the full possession of ability to do it, he hath not over-
loaded the text, in the manner of Hammond, Chandler, Gill,
and some others; altho' we cannot compliinent his memory
with having displayed that acumen of investigation which in
some cases diftinguishes the annotations of a Locke. Our
readers will accept, as a specimen of the commentary and notes
on the gospels, those in the 19th chapter of St. Matthew.
с н A P.


1 And it came to pass, that
when Jesus had finished these fay-
ings, he departed from Gallilee, (a) 1 (a) Matthew here begins ta
and came into the (h) coasts of Ju. give an account of Jesus's journey
dea (c) beyond Jordan.

(the only one which he mentions)
to Jerusalem, a little before the
paflover, in which he was crucified
See Mark x. J. and Luke ix. 51.

Ib. (b)i. e. borders.

Ib. (c) Rather, by the fide of Yor. dan. See note (A) here and on ch. iv. 15. and lee com, on ch. ill. 6. and John vi, 22.

2 And

Ν Ο Τ Ε S. (A) V. 1. Beyond Jordan] Jesus came from Galilee (which lay to the north of Judea) into the coasts of Judea ; and froin thence in his Jerusalem he went through Jericho (ch. xx. 17, 29.), which lay at the dif


* Still less from the merit of the author, to whose great modesty and due sense of the importance and difficulty of the undertaking, the procrasuina tion of the publication appears to have been owing ; if we may judge from the motto, he has adopted from Virgil's epiftle to Auguftus on being ed by that Emperor how far he was advanced in his poem of the Aneide Tania inchoata res eft; ut penè vitio mentis tantum opus ingrejus mibi videar. Rey.

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Τ Η Ε Τ Ε Χ Τ. THE COMMENTARY. 2 And great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there.

3 The Pharisees also came unto him (d) tempting him, and 3 (d) i. e. trying to make him saying unto him, Is it lawful for a give a proof of his wisdom; that man to put away his wife (e) for they might know, whether he was

so wise as he was generally thought to be. See com. and note on ch.

cvery cause?

•7 .وز

Ib. (e) i. e. upon every ground

of dislike. See note (B). Ν ο Τ Ε S. tance of fixty furlongs, or seven miles and a half from Jordan on the western side of it (Jof. Bell. Jud. iv. 8. 2.): it seems therefore most probable, that the course of Jesus's journey led him by the side of the river Jordan, not beyond it. The Greek word wéfær has sometimes this signification, of which John i. 28. and vi. 22. seem to be instances. See note on Matthew iv. 15. and com. on John vi. 22.

(B) V. 3. For every cause] By the law of Mofes (Deut. xxiv. 1.), any husband was permitted to put away his wife, when she finds no favour in bis eyes, because he bath found uncleanness in her, i. e. when she becomes disagreeable to him on account of her uncleanness : but in that case he is bound by the same law to give her a bill of divorcement; and then she might go and be another man's wife. This was the law; and the foundation most probably of the question, which the Pharisees here put to Jesus, seems to have been this.. All the Jews acknowledged, that it was lawful for a man to put away his wife in case of adultery ; but, while fome confined the law to. this case only, (as Rabbi Shammi and his followers did), others (following che opinion of Rabbi Hillel) extended it to every cause of dillike, understanding the word ,717% in a larger sense than that of adultery; even in the sense of every thing, that was esteemed scandalous and indecent in a wife. So it seems to have been understood by the author of Ecclus xxv. 16. If (says he) foe go not as thou wouldet have ber, cut her off from thy flesh, and give her a bill of divorce, and let her go. And the generality of Jews parted with their wives for every cause, as we may judge from what Jofephus says in his life, c. 76. that he divorced his second wife, though he had ihree Sons by ber, because he did not like her manners, peine deoxój wyos aútñs tois nonow. Agreeably to which, he says in Antiq. iv. 8. 23. where he treats of the law of Moses, that there are many causes for divorcing a wife, γυναικός της συνοικέσης βελόμενος διαζευχθήναι καθ' ας δηποιον αιτίας (σολλαι δ' αν τους ανθρώπους τοιαύται γίνoιλο) γράλλασι μεν σερί το μηδέποτε ovp:a8cī icxuecidow, He who desires to be loosed from a wife, who cohabits with him for any causes whatsoever (and there are many such caufes wbich men have) let him confirm by a writing shat he will never more have to do with her. We may oblerve likewise, that Jesus in ver. 8. of this chapter seems to have understood this law of Mofes (Deut. xxiv. 1.) in the wid. est and most comprehensive sense, at least in a sense comprehending more than adultery only: but then, what liberty the law of Moses suffered the Jews to take for the hardness of their hearts, Jesus, as an improver of morals, restrained by his law given in ch. v. 32. and here repeated in ver. 9. Ifay unto you, Whosoever fall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, &c. VOL. V.


4 And


Τ Η Ε Τ Ε Χ Τ. THE COMMENTARY. 4 And he answered and said unto them, (f) Have ye not read, 4 (f) In Gen, i, 27. that he which made them at the beginning, made them male and female? '5 (8) And said, for this cause

5 (8) á e. Adam, or rather Mo. (b) thall a man leave father and ses said; for the latter seems to be mother, and shall cleave to his the speaker in Gen. ii.

See wife : and they twain Mall be one note (C). Aleth.

Ib. (b) i. e. See Ephes. v. 31.

and Pf. xiv. 10. 6 (i) Wherefore they are no 6 (i) Or, fo that. more twain, but one flesh. What

Ib. (k) i. c. except in the case of therefore God hath joined together fornication (ver. 9.) for that in a let no man (k) put asunder. wife, being adultery, is of itself a

putting alunder. 7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?

8 He saith unto them, Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, (2) suffered you to put a- 8 (1) The law in Deut. xxiv. 1, way your wives : but from the be- 2. seems to have been a permiffion ginning it was not so.

only to put away their wives, but with a command, joined to that permission, of giving them in that

cale a bill of divorcement. 9 And I fay unto you, (792) 9 (m) See com. on ch. v. 32*. Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for (n) fornica

16. (n) See com. on ch. v. 324. tion, and shall marry another, commirreth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away, doth commit adultery.

Ν Ο Τ Ε S. (C) V. 5. And faid] The word dint's seems here, as that and the word onoir is oftentimes, to be used impersonally for one said, or it was said, i.e by him, who was the author of the book, from whence the passage is cited. See examples of this in 1 Cor. vi. 16. and. xiv. 30. and xv. 27, 52. and 2 Cor. vi. 2. Eph. v. 14. Heb. i. 7. and see also 1 Macc. vii. 16.

* i. c. Adultery for this is said concerning a married woman, and in such an one fornication is adultery. See Ecclus 22, 23.

i. e. If the be married to another man in his life time fee Rom. vii. 3); such putting away not being a dissolution of the marriage : and therefore nos only he who is married to her, but the husband who divorces her, if he he married again to another woman, committeth adultery likewise, as is said in ch. xix. 9. Mark x. 11, 12, Luke xvi. 18.




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