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is indeed madness. In battle, those who are most afraid are always in most danger; but courage is equivalent to a rampart.

" When I contemplate you, soldiers, and when I consider your past exploits, a strong hope of victory animates me. Your spirit, your age, your valour, give me confidence; to say nothing of necessity, which makes even cowards brave. To prevent the numbers of the enemy from surrounding us, our confined situation is sufficient. But should Fortune be unjust to your valour, take care not to lose your lives unavenged; take care not to be taken and butchered like cattle, rather than, fighting like men, to leave to your enemies a bloody and mournful victory." LIX. When he had thus spoken, he ordered, after a short

a delay, the signal for battle to be sounded, and led down his troops, in regular order, to the level ground. Having then sent away the horses of all the cavalry, in order to increase the men's courage by making their danger equal, he himself, on foot, drew up his troops suitably to their numbers and the nature of the ground. “As a plain stretched between the mountains on the left, with a rugged rock on the right, he placed eight cohorts in front, and stationed the rest of his force, in close order, in the rear? From among these he removed all the ablest centurions, the veterans”, and the stoutest

1 LIX. In the rear] In subsidio. Most translators bave rendered this," as a body of reserve;" but such cannot well be the signification. It seems only to mean the part behind the front: Catiline places the eight cohorts in front, and the rest of his force in subsidio, to support the front. Subsidia, according to Varro (de L. L., iv., 16) and Festus (v. Subsidium), was a term applied to the Triarii, because they subsidebant, or sunk down on one knee, until it was their turn to act. See Scheller's Lex. V. Subsidium. “ Notissimi ordines ita dicuntur.”. Gerlach. In subsidiis, which occurs a few lines below, seems to signify in lines in the rear; as in Jug. 49, triplicibus subsidiis aciem intruxit, i. e. with three lines behind the front. “Subsidium ea pars aciei vocabatur quæ reliquis submitti posset; Cæs. B. G., ii., 25." Dietsch.

2 All the ablest centurions] Centuriones omnes lectos. Lectos you may consider to be the same as eximios, præstantes, centurionum præstantissimum quemque.” Kritzius. Cortius and others take it for a participle, chosen.

3 Veterans] Evocatos. Some would make this also a participle, because, say they, it cannot signify evocati, or called-out veterans, since, though there were such soldiers in a regular Roman army, there could be none so called in the tumultuary forces of Catili But to this it is answered that Catiline had imitated the regular disposition of a Roman army, and that his veterans might consequently be called evocati, just as if they had been in one; and, also that evocatus as a participle would be useless; for if Catiline removed (subducit) the centurions, it is unnecessary to add that he called them out. Evocati erant, qui expletis sti


of the common soldiers that were regularly armed, into the foremost ranks?. He ordered Caius Manlius to take the command on the right, and a certain officer of Fæsulæon the left; while he himself, with his freedmen3 and the colonists4, took his station by the eagles, which Caius Marius was said to have had in his army in the Cimbrian war.

On the other side, Caius Antonius, who, being lameo, was unable to be present in the engagement, gave the command of the army to Marcus Petreius, his lieutenant-general. Petreius ranged the cohorts of veterans, which he had raised to meet the present insurrection", in front, and behind them the pendiis non poterant in delectu scribi, sed precibus imperatoris permoti, aut in gratiam ejus, militiam resumebant, homines longo usu militiæ peritissimi. Dio. xlv., p. 276. Έκ τούτων δε των ανδρών και το των Hoυοκάτων ή 'Ουοκάτων σύστημα (δύς Ανακλήτους άν τις Ελληνίσας, ότι πεπαυμένοι της στρατειας, επ' αυτήν αυθις ανεκλήθησαν, ονομάσειεν) évojioon. Intelligit itaque ejusmodi homines veteranos, etsi non propriè erant tales evocati, sed sponte castra Catilinæ essent secuti.” Cortius.

1 Into the foremost ranks ] In primam aciem. Whether Sallust means that he ranged them with the eight cohorts, or only in the first line of the subsidia, is not clear.

2 A certain officer of Fæsulæ] Fæsulanum quemdam. “He is thought to have been that P. Furius, whom Cicero (Cat., iii., 6, 14) mentions as having been one of the colonists that Sylla settled at Fæsulæ, and who was to have been executed, if he had been apprehended, for having been concerned in corrupting the Allobrogian deputies.” Dietsch. Plutarch calls this officer Furius.

3 His freedmen] Libertis. “His own freedmen, whom he probably had about him as a body-guard, deeming them the most attached of his adherents. Among them was, possibly, that Sergius, whom we find from Cic. pro Domo, 5, 6, to have been Catiline's armour-bearer.” Dietsch.

4 The colonists] Colonis. “Veterans of Sylla, who had been settled by him as colonists in-Etruria, and who had now been induced to join Catiline.” Gerlach. See c. 28.

By the eagle] Propter aquilam. See Cic. in Cat., i., 9.

Being lame] Pedibus æger. It has been common among translators to render pedibus æger afflicted with the gout, though a Roman might surely be lanie without having the gout. As the lameness of Antonius, however, according to Dion Cassius (xxxvii., 39), was only pretended, it may be thought more probable that he counterfeited the gout than any other malady. It was with this belief, I suppose, that the writer of a gloss on one of the manuscripts consulted by Cortius, interpreted the words, ultroneam passus est podagram, "he was affected with a voluntary gout.” Dion Cassius says that he preferred engaging with Antonius, who had the larger army, rather than with Metellus, who had the smaller, because he hoped that Antonius would designedly act in such a way as to lose the victory.

? To meet the present insurrection] Tumulti causâ. Any sudden war or insurrection in Italy or Gaul was called tumultus. See Cic. Philipp., V., 12.



rest of his force. in lines. Then, riding round among his

' troops,' and addressing his men by name, he encouraged them, and' bade them remember that they were to fight against unarmed marauders, in defence of their country, their children, their temples; and their homes?. Being a military man, and having served with great reputation, for more than thirty years, as tribune, præfect, lieutenant, or prætor, he knew most of the soldiers and their honourable actions, and, by calling these to their remembrance, roused the spirits of the men. Petreius

LX. When he had made a complete survey, he gave the signal with the trumpet, and ordered the cohorts to advance slowly. The army of the enemy followed his example; and when they approached so near that the action could be commenced by the light-armed troops, both sides, with a loud shout, rushed together in a furious charge. They threw aside their missiles, and fought only with their swords. The veterans, calling to mind their deeds of old, engaged fiercely in the closest combat. The enemy made an obstinate resistance; and both sides contended with the utmost fury. Catiline, during this time, was exerting himself with his light troops in the front, sustaining such as were pressed, substituting fresh men for the wounded, attending to every exigency, charging in person, wounding many an enemy, and performing at once the duties of a valiant soldier and a skilful general.

When Petreius, contrary to his expectation, found Catiline attacking him with such impetuosity, he led his prætorian cohort against the centre of the enemy, amongst whom, being thus thrown into confusion, and offering but partial resistance, he made great slaughter, and ordered, at the same time, an assault on both flanks. Manlius and the Fæsulan, sword in hand, were among the first that fell; and Catiline, when he saw his army routed, and himself left with but few supporters, remembering his birth and former dignity, rushed into the thickest of the enemy, where he was slain, fighting to the last.

· Their temples and their homes] Aris atque focis suis. See c. 52. 2 LX. In a furious charge] Infestis signis.

3 Offering but partial resistance] Alios alibi resistentes. Not making a stand in a body, but only some in one place, and some in another.

Among the first, fc.] In primis pugnantes cadunt. Cortius very properly refers in primis to cadunt.

LXI. When the battle was over, it was plainly seen what boldness, and what energy of spirit, had prevailed throughout the army of Catiline; for, almost everywhere, every soldier, after yielding up his breath, covered with his corpse the spot which he had occupied when alive. A few, indeed, whom the prætorian cohort had dispersed, had fallen somewhat differently, but all with wounds in front. Catiline himself was found, far in advance of his men, among the dead bodies of the enemy; he was not quite breathless, and still expressed in his countenance the fierceness of spirit which he had shown during his life. Of his whole army, neither in the battle, nor in flight, was any free-born citizen made prisoner, for they had spared their own lives no more than those of the enemy.

Nor did the army of the Roman people obtain a joyful or bloodless victory; for all their bravest men were either killed in the battle, or left the field severely wounded. Of many

who went from the camp to view the ground, or plunder the slain, some, in turning over the bodies of the enemy, discovered a friend, others an acquaintance, others a relative; some, too, recognised their enemies. Thus, gladness and sorrow, grief and joy, were variously felt throughout the whole army.






Catiline is Prætor. 686.–C. CALPURNIUS Piso, M. ACILIUS GLABRIO.—Cati

line Governor of Africa. 687.-L. VOLCATIUS TULLUS, M. ÆmiliUS LEPIDUS.-De

puties from Africa accuse Catiline of extortion, through the agency of Clodius. He is obliged to desist from standing for the consulship, and forms the project of the

first conspiracy. See Sall. Cat., c. 18. 688.-L. MANLIUS TORQUATUS, L. AURELIUS Cotta.

Jan. 1: Catiline's project of the first conspiracy becomes known, and he defers the execution of it to the 5th of February, when he makes an unsuccessful attempt to execute it. July 17: He is acquitted of extortion, and

begins to canvass for the consulship for the year 690. 689.-L. JULIUS CÆSAR, C. MARCIUS FIGULUS THERMUS.

- June 1: Catiline convokes the chiefs of the second conspiracy. He is disappointed in his views on the con


Oct. 19: Cicero lays the affair of the conspiracy before the senate, who decree plenary powers to the consuls for defending the state. Oct. 21: Silanus and Muræna are elected consuls for the next year, Catiline, who was a candidate, being rejected. Oct. 22: Catiline is accused under the Plautian Law de vi. Sall. Cat., c. 31. Oct. 24: Manlius takes up arms in Etruria. Nov. 6: Catiline assembles the chief conspirators, by the agency of Porcius Læca. Sall. Cat., c. 27. Nov. 7: Vargunteius and Cornelius undertake to assassinate Cicero. Sall. Cat., c. 28. Nov. 8: Catiline appears in the senate; Cicero delivers his first Oration against him; he threatens to extinguish the flame raised around him in a general destruction, and quits Rome. Sall. Cat., c. 31. Nov. 9: Cicero delivers his second Oration against Catiline, before

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