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have agreed in one common character, and have fallen within one period of time; and that, as different kinds of animals, shut up in a fold or other inclosure, continue each distinct from those around it, and form themselves into separate bodies, so minds, capable of any great achievements, have formed distinct assemblages about the same time and with similar effect ? One age, and that not extending through many years, gave lustre to tragedy by the works of those great authors, men animated by a divine spirit, Æschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. One age produced the Ancient Comedy, under Cratinus, Aristophanes, and Eupolis. As for the New Comedy, Menander, with Philemon and Diphilus, his equals in age rather than ability, not only invented it within a few years, but left works in it beyond imitation. The distinguished philosophers, too, deriving their knowledge from the lips of Socrates, in how short a time did they all, whom I have a little before enumerated?, flourish after the death of Plato and Aristotle! And in oratory what splendour was there before Isocrates, or after the death of his hearers and their immediate disciples ? So crowded were they into a short

space of time, that all who were worthy of being remembered must have been known to each other. XVII. Nor has this peculiarity occurred more among

the Greeks than among the Romans. Roman tragedy, unless we go back to the rudest and most barbarous efforts, which deserve no praise but as attempts at invention, subsists wholly in the writings of Accius and his contemporaries. The agreeable sportiveness of Latin humour displayed itself, about the same time, in Cæcilius, Terence, and Afranius. As for the historians, a period of less than eighty years (even if we include Livy in the age of the earlier writers) produced them all, with the exception of Cato and some old and obscure annalists. Nor did the assemblage of poets extend further in time, either upwards or downwards. With respect to oratory,

1 Whom I have a little before enumerated] Quos paulo ante enumeravimus. In some part of the book which is now lost.

2 XVII. Cæcilius, Terence, and Afranius] Why does he omit Plautas? “I must suppose either that the name of Plantus has dropped out of the text, or, what seems more probable, that Paterculus entertained the same opinion of Plautus as Horace expresses, De Arte Poeticâ, 270, and therefore intentionally

omitted him." Krause.

forensic pleading, and the perfect beauty of prose eloquence, they burst forth complete (to say nothing of Cato, and to speak with due respect for Publius Crassus, Scipio, Lælius, the Gracchi, Fannius, and Servius Galba) under Cicero, who was the coryphæus in his art; as of all other orators we receive pleasure from few, and admire none, except such as lived in his time, or immediately succeeded it?. That the same has been the case with regard to grammarians, statuaries, painters, and sculptors”, whoever investigates the records of ages will easily convince himself, and will see that the most eminent performances in every art are confined within very narrow limits of time.

Of this concurrence of similar geniuses in the same period, of their corresponding devotion to like pursuits, and their equality of progress, I often inquire for the causes, but find none that I can regard as satisfactory. Some, however, I discover that are probable; among which are the following. Emulation nourishes genius; and at one time envy, at another admiration, kindles a spirit of imitation. Any art, too, which is pursued with extreme zeal, will soon reach the height of excellence; and to stand still on the summit is difficult; as, in the natural course of things, what cannot advance, recedes. And as we are at first excited with ardour to overtake those whom we think our superiors, so, when we once despair of surpassing or equalling them, our zeal flags with our hope, ceases to pursue what it cannot attain, and, relinquishing that object as already pre-occupied, turns to something new. Declining any pursuit in which we cannot arrive at eminence, we endeavour to find one that will allow scope for our exertions; and the consequence is, that such changes, if frequent and unsteady, prove the greatest obstacle to perfection.

1 Except such as lived in his time, or immediately succeeded it] Neminem-nisi aut ab illo visum, aut qui illum viderit. This is translated according to the interpretation of Krause. Those who were visi ab illo were his contemporaries, (some of trem, perhaps, a little his seniors,) with whom he lived, as it were, face to face; those qui illum viderunt were the men of the succeeding generation, who were just old enough to have had a sight of him. Thus Ovid says of Virgil, Virgilium jantum vidi.

2 Statuaries-sculptors] Plastis-scalptoribus. Plastes, one that makes figures of any soft matter, as clay; scalptor, or sculptor, one who works with harder material, as stone or wood.

XVIII. Our wonder may well be transferred from ages to cities. One city in Attica was distinguished in eloquence for a greater number of years, and for more achievements in it, than all the rest of Greece; so that, though the natives of that country were dispersed through its different states, we might suppose its genius to have been confined entirely within the walls of Athens. Nor do I more wonder that this should have been the case, than that not a single orator of Argos, Thebes, or Lacedæmon, was thought worthy of notice during his life, or of remembrance after his death. In such studies, these, as well as many other cities, were wholly unproductive, except that the single muse of Pindar conferred some degree of lustre on Thebes. Alcman? the Lacedæmonians falsely claim.

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1 XVIII. Alcman] He was a native of Lydia, and brought to Lacedæmon when very young, as a slave.

BOOK II.

THE ARGUMENT. DECLENSION of Roman virtue after the destruction of Carthage; wars with Viria

thus and Numantia, 1. Acts and death of Tiberius Gracchus, II., III. Aristonicus defeated; Numantia overthrown; character and death of Publius Scipio, IV. Acts of Aulus Brutus in Spain, V. Proceedings and death of Caius Gracchus, VI. Cruelty of Opimius, VII. Narbo Martius founded; Cato condemned for extortion; triumphs of the Metelli and Minutius, VIII. Eminent Roman orators and writers, IX. Severity of the censors; family of the Domitii, X. The Jugurthine war; the acts of Marius, XI., XII. Illfortune and death of Drusus, XIII., XIV. The colony of Carthage; the Italian war, XV., XVI. The civic franchise granted to the Italians; character of Sylla, XVII. War with Mithridates commenced ; acts of Sulpicius, XVIII. Civil war between Marius and Sylla, XIX. The consul Pompeius murdered by the soldiers ; proceedings of Cinna, XX. Cinna succeeds in recalling Marius, XXI. Marius's proscription, XXII. Marius's death; success of Sylla against Mithridates, XXIII. Deaths of Fimbria, Lucilius, and Cinna, XXIV. Further proceedings of Sylla, XXV., XXVI. Fate of Pontius Telesinus, and of the younger Marius, XXVII. Sylla's dictatorship and proscription, XXVIII. Character of Pompey, afterwards called the Great, XXIX. Death of Sertorius; triumphs of Metellus and Pompey ; war with Spartacus, XXX. Pompey suppresses the pirates, XXXI., XXXII. Pompey receives the command of the Mithridatic war; acts of Lucullus, XXXIII. Conquest of Crete; conspiracy of Catiline, XXXIV. Character of Cato; deaths of Catiline and the other conspirators, XXXV. Augustus Cæsar born; learned men of that age, XXXVI. Tigranes surrenders to Pompey, XXXVII. Names of Roman provinces, and by whom conquered, XXXVIII., XXXIX. Pompey conquers Mithridates, and triumphs, XL. Descent, character, and actions of Julius Cæsar, XLI.-XLIII. First Triumvirate; consulship of Cæsar, XLIV. Of Clodius, Cicero, and Cato, XLV. Cæsar's acts in Gaul; Crassus killed in Parthia, XLVI. Further proceedings of Cæsar; Clodius slain by Milo, XLVII. Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, XLVIII.-LII. Death of Pompey, LIII. Cæsar's actions in Egypt, Africa, and Spain, LIV., LV. Cæsar's triumphs and death, LVI., LVII. Proceedings of Brutus and Cicero, LVIII. Opening of Cæsar's will; family and character of Augustus, LIX. Dissensions and war between Cæsar and Antony, LX., LXI. Provinces decreed to Brutus and Cassius by the senate; Cæsar slighted, LXII. Antony joins the army of Lepidus, LXIII. Death of Decimus Brutus; banishment of Cicero, LXIV. The second Triumvirate, LXV. Another proscription; death of Cicero, LXVI. Conduct of the Romans at the time of the proscription, LXVII. Of Cælius and Milo; of the clemency of Cæsar, LXVIII. Of Dolabella, Vatinius, and the Pædian law, LXIX. Proceedings of Brutus and Cassius; they are slain in the battle of Philippi, LXX. Consequences of the battle, LXXI., LXXII. Of Sextus Pompeius,

LXXIII. Of Antony, Cæsar, and Livia, LXXIV., LXXV. Of Caius Velleius and Fulvia; peace between Cæsar and Antony, LXXVI. Peace with Sestas Pompeius, LXXVII. Antony marries Octavia, Cæsar's sister ; Labienus overthrown, LXXVIII. War resumed with Sextus Pompeius; Cæsar marries Livia, LXXIX. Degradation of Lepidus, LXXX. Cæsar suppresses a mutiny in the army, LXXXI. Antony invades Parthia, LXXXII. Of Plancus, LXXXIII. Battle of Actium, and what immediately followed it, LXXXIV.LXXXVI. Death of Antony, LXXXVII. Conspiracy, death, and character of Lepidus, LXXXVIII. Cæsar's triumphs and plans of government, LXXXIX. Reduction of Spain and Dalmatia, XC. Roman ensigns recovered from the Parthians, XCI. Of Sentius Saturninus, XCII. Of Marcellus and Agrippa, XCIII. Expeditions of Tiberius and Drusus; death of Drusus, XCIV.XCVII. The Thracian war, XCVIII. Tiberius retires to Rhodes, XCIX. Hostilities resumed in Parthia and Germany; excesses of Julia, C. Caius Cæsar in Parthia ; his death, CI., CII. Tiberius and Agrippa adopted by Augustus, CIII., CIV. Acts of Tiberius in Germany, CV.-CIX. Insurreetion in Dalmatia, Cx. Proceedings of Tiberius against the Dalmatians and Pannonians; both are subdued, CXI.-CXV. Of some who were distinguished in this war, CXVI. Loss of the legions in Germany under Varus, CXVII. Of Arminius; death of Varus, CXVIII., CXIX. Tiberius conducts the German war; his triumphs, CXX.-CXXII. Death of Augustus, CXXIII. Tiberius succeeds him, CXXIV. Mutiny in Germany and Illyricum suppressed, CXXV. Government of Tiberius, CXXVI. Of Sejanus, CXXVII., CXXVIII. Observations on Tiberius, CXXIX., CXXX. Prayer for the prosperity of Rome, CXXXI.

I. The former Scipio had opened for the Romans the way to power; the latteropened that to luxury. For when their dread of Carthage was at an end, and their rival in empire was removed, the nation, deserting the cause of virtue, went over, not gradually, but with precipitation, to that of vice; the old rules of conduct were renounced, and new introduced; and the people turned themselves from activity to slumber, from arms to pleasure, from business to idleness. Then it was that Scipio built porticos on the Capitol; that Metellus erected those before mentioned?; and that Cnæus Octavius raised that pre-eminently delightful one in the Circus; and private luxury soon followed public magnificence.

There soon succeeded a lamentable and disgraceful war in Spain, conducted by Viriathus, a captain of banditti ; which,

1 1. The former Scipio—the latter] The former was Scipio Africanus Major, the conqueror of Hannibal; the latter Scipio Africanus Minor, who destroyed Carthage and Numantia, and who is mentioned above, i., 15.

2 Before mentioned] See i., 2.

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