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for revenge,

despoiling his men of their But the people of Rome, incensed at the ignominy and shame of this Numantine treaty, no less than at the Caudine treaty of former days, expiated the dishonour of their miscarriage, for the present, by the surrender of Mancinus?. But afterwards, under the leadership of Scipio, who was prepared by the burning of Carthage for the destruction of cities, they grew outrageous

At first, however, Scipio had a harder struggle in the camp than in the field, with our own troops than with those of Numantia. For the soldiery, under his orders, were of necessity exercised in constant, excessive, and even servile labour.. Such as knew not how to bear arms, were ordered to carry an extraordinary number of stakes for ramparts; and such as were unwilling to be stained with blood, were forced to defile themselves with dirt. Besides, all the women and servant-boys, and all baggage except what was requisite for use, was dismissed.

Justly has it been said, that an army is of the same worth as its leader. When the troops were thus reduced to discipline, a battle was fought, and that was effected which none had ever expected to see, namely, that every one saw the Numantines fleeing. They were even willing to surrender themselves, if nothing but what was endurable by men had been required of them. But as Scipio was eager for a full and absolute victory, they were brought to such despair, that, having gorged themselves, as if for a funeral-banquet, with half-raw flesh and celia', (a name which they give to a drink of the country made from corn,) they rushed out to battle with a determination to die. Their object was understood by our

i By the surrender of Mancinus] Deditione Mancini. Mancinus was placed, by the consul Publius Furius, at the gate of Numantia, unarmed, and with his hands tied behind him. But the Numantines refused to receive him. See Vell. Pat., ii., 90, 5. The subject is also mentioned by Appian, and by Plutarch, Life of Tib. Gracchus.

2 Excessive-labour] Injustis-operibus. Injustus,says Duker, “for immo. dicus and nimius. Some have proposed to read insuetis, but Madame Dacier defends injustus by a reference to Virgil, Geo., iii., 346:

Haud secus ac patriis acer Romanus in armis,

Injusto sub fasce viam dum carpit.3 Celia] A sort of cerevisia, or beer. See Plin., H. N., xxii., 25. “ Probably,” says Scheller, “a Spanish word.”



general, and to men defying death the opportunity of fighting was not granted. But when famine pressed hard upon them, as they were surrounded with a trench and breastwork, and four camps,) they intreated of Scipio to be allowed the privilege of engaging with him, desiring that he would kill them as men, and, when this was not granted, they resolved upon making a sally. A battle being the consequence, great numbers of them were slain, and, as the famine was still sore upon them, the survivors lived for some time on their bodies?. At last they determined to flee; but this their wives prevented, by cutting, with great treachery, yet out of affection, the girths of their saddles. Despairing, therefore, of escape, and being driven to the utmost rage and fury, they resolved to die in the following manner. They first destroyed their captains, and then themselves and their native city, with sword and poison and a general conflagration. Peace be to the ashes of the most brave of all cities; a city, in my opinion, most happy in its very sufferings; a city which protected its allies with honour, and withstood, with its own force, and for so long a period, a people supported by the strength of the whole world. Being overpowered at length by the greatest of generals, it left no cause for the enemy to rejoice over it. Its plunder, as that of a poor people, was valueless; their arms they had themselves burnt; and the triumph of its conquerors was only over its name.

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HUNDRED YEARS. Hitherto the Roman people had been noble, honourable, pious, upright, and illustrious. Their subsequent actions in this age, as they were equally grand, so were they more tur. bulent and dishonourable, their vices increasing with the very greatness of their empire. So that if any one divides this third age, which was occupied in conquest beyond the sea, and which we have made to consist of two hundred years, into two equal parts, he will allow, with reason and justice, that the first hundred years, in which they subdued

Lived for some time on their bodies] Aliquantisper inde vivere. The commentators agree in giving this sense to inde. See Val. Max., vii., 6, 2.

Africa, Macedonia, Sicily, and Spain, were (as the poets sing) golden years; and that the other hundred, which to the Jugurthine, Cimbrian, Mithridatic, and Parthian wars, as well

as those of Gaul and Germany, (in which the glory of the Romans ascended to heaven,) united the murders of the Gracchi and Drusus, the Servile War, and (that nothing might be wanting to their infamy) the war with the gladiators, were iron, blood-stained, and whatever more severe can be said of them. Turning at last upon themselves, the Romans, as if in a spirit of madness, and fury, and impiety, tore themselves in pieces by the dissensions of Marius and Sylla, and afterwards by those of Pompey and Cæsar.

These occurrences, though they are all involved and confused, yet, that they may appear the more clearly, and that what is bad in them may not obscure what is good, shall be related separately and in order. And in the first place, as we have begun, we shall give an account of those just and honourable wars which they waged with foreign nations, that the daily increasing greatness of the empire may be made more manifest; and we shall then revert to those direful proceedings, those dishonourable and unnatural contests, of the Romans among themselves.


After Spain was subdued in the West, the Roman people had peace in the East; nor had they peace only, but, by unwonted and unexampled good fortune, wealth left them by bequests from kings, and indeed whole kingdoms at once, feil into their possession. Attalus, king of Pergamus, son of king Eumenes, who had formerly been our ally and fellowsoldier, left a willl to the following effect : “ Let the Roman people be heir to my property.” Of the king's property the kingdom was a portion. The Romans accordingly entering on the inheritance, became possessors of the province, not by war and arms, but, what is more satisfactory, by testamentary right.

But as to what followed, it is hard to say whether the Romans lost or recovered this province with the greater ease. Aristonicus, a high-spirited youth of the royal family, brought over to his interest, without much difficulty, part of the cities which had been subject to the kings?, and reduced a few, which offered resistance, as Myndus, Samos, and Colophon, by force of arms. He then cut to pieces the army of the prætor Crassus, and took Crassus himself prisoner. But the Roman general, remembering the dignity of his family and the name of Rome, struck out the eye of the barbarian, who had him in custody, with a wand, and this provoked him, as he intended to put him to death. Aristonicus, not long after, was defeated and captured by Perperna, and, upon giving up all claim to the kingdom, kept in confinement. Aquilius then suppressed the relics of the Asiatic war, by poisoning certain springs, (a most dishonourable proceeding,) in order to force some cities to a surrender. 1 This act, though it hastened his victory, rendered it infamous; for, contrary to the laws of the gods and the practices of our ancestors, he desecrated the Roman arms, which had till then been pure and inviolate, by the use of detestable drugs.

1 Attalus-left a will] See note on the Letter of Mithridates, Fragments of Sallust's History, p. 242.



This was the state of things in the east. But in the southern quarter there was no such tranquillity. Who, after the destruction of Carthage, would have expected any war in Africa ? Yet Numidia roused herself with no small effort; and in Jugurtha there was something to be

dreaded after Hannibal. This subtle prince assailed the Romans, when they were illustrious and invincible in arms, by means of his wealth ; and it fortunately happened, beyond the expectation of all, that a king eminent in artifice was ensnared by artifice.

Jugurtha, the grandson of Masinissa, and son of Micipsa by adoption, having determined, from a desire of being sole king, to put his brothers to death, but having less fear of them than of the nate and people of Rome, in whose faith and protection the kingdom was placed, effected his first crime

Subject to the kings] Eumenes and Attalus.


by treachery ; and having got the head of Hiempsal, and then turned his efforts against Adherbal, he brought the senate over to his side, (after Adherbal had fled to Rome,) by sending them money through his ambassadors. This was his first victory over us. Having by similar means assailed certain commissioners, who were sent to divide the kingdom between him and Adherbal, and having overcome the very integrity of the Roman empirel in Scaurus, he prosecuted with greater confidence the wicked course which he had commenced. But dishonesty cannot long be concealed; the corrupt acts of Scaurus's bribed commission came to light, and it was resolved by the Romans to make war on the fratricide. The consul Calpurnius Bestia was the first general sent to Numidia; but Jugurtha, having found that gold was more efficient against the

Romans than iron, purchased peace of him. Being charged with this underhand dealing, and summoned, on the assurance of safe conduct, to appear

before the senate, the prince, with equal boldness, both came to the city and procured the death of Massiva, his competitor for the kingdom of Masinissa, by the aid of a hired assassin. This was another reason for war against Jugurtha. The task of inflicting the vengeance that was to follow was committed to Albinus; but Jugurtha (shameful to relate !) so corrupted his army also, that, through the voluntary flight of our men in the field, he gained a victory, and became master of our camp; and an ignominious treaty, as the price of safety to the Romans, being added to their previous dishonour, he suffered the army, which he had before bought, to depart.

At this time, to support, not so much the Roman empire as its honour, arose Metellus, who, with great subtlety, assailed the enemy with his own artifices; an enemy who sought to delude him, sometimes with intreaties, sometimes with threats, sometimes with flight that was evidently pretended, and sometimes with such as seemed to be reals. But


1 Ch. I. The very integrity of the Roman empire] Ipsos Romani imperii

“Because Scaurus seemed of all men the most grave and abstinent.” Freinshemius. See the note on Sall., Jug., c. 15.

2 Fratricide] Parricidam. See note on Sall., Cat., c. 14.

3 Flight that was evidently pretended-such as seemed to be real] Jam simulatâ, jam quasi verâ fugâ. There is something corrupt in this passage; for, as

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