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offered the spolia opima, taken from their king, to Jupiter Feretrius. To the Sabines, the gates of Rome were given up by a young woman, though not treacherously?; she had asked, as a reward, what they wore on their left arms, but whether she meant their shields or their bracelets, is doubtful. They, to keep their word, and be revenged on her, buried her under their bucklers. The enemy having thus gained admission within the walls, there ensued, in the very forum, so desperate an engagement, that Romulus intreated Jupiter to stop the shameful flight of his men ; and hence a temple was afterwards erected, and Jupiter surnamed Stator. At last the women who had been carried off, rushed, with their hair dishevelled, between the contending parties, and separated them. Thus peace was made, and a league established, with Tatius"; and a wonderful event followed, namely, that the enemy, leaving their habitations, removed into the new city, and shared their hereditary property with their sons-in-law, as a portion for their daughters.

The strength of the city being soon increased, this most wise monarch made the following arrangement in the state; that the young men, divided into tribes, should be ready, with horses and arms, for any sudden demands of war; and that the administration of affairs should be in the hands of the older men, who, from their authority, were called Fathers, and from their age, the Senate. When he had thus regulated matters, and was holding an assembly of the people at the lake of Caprea, near the city, he was suddenly snatched out of their sight. Some think that he was cut to pieces by the senate, on account of his excessive severity ; but' a tempest which then arose, and an eclipse of the sun, were apparent proofs of his deification. This opinion Julius Proculus soon after confirmed, asserting that he had seen Romulus in a more majestic shape than he had had when alive; that he also commanded them to acknowledge him as a deity, as it pleased the gods that he should be called Quirinus in heaven; and that thus Rome should have the sovereignty of the world.

· Not treacherously] Nec dolo. Florus means that she intended no treachery to her countrymen, but wished to rob or disarm the enemy by depriving them of their bracelets or shields.

2 Tatius] King of the Sabines. Comp. c. 15.
3 The Senate] Senatus. From senes, old men.


The successor of Romulus was Numa Pompilius, whom, when he was living at Cures, a town of the Sabines, the Romans of their own accord solicited, on account of his celebrated piety, to become their king. It was he who taught them sacred rites and ceremonies, and the whole worship of the immortal gods, and who instituted the pontiffs, augurs, Salii, and other sarcedotal offices among the Roman people. He also divided the year into twelve months, and the days into those for legal business and for vacation. He appointed the sacred shields and the image of Pallas, as certain secret pledges of empire ; and ordered the temple of double-faced Janus to be the symbol of peace and war. He assigned the fire of Vesta to the care of virgins, that its flame might constantly burn, in imitation of the stars of heaven, as a guardian of the empire. All these arrangements he pretended to make by the advice of the goddess Egeria, that his

barbarous subjeets might more willingly submit to them. In process of time, he brought that uncivilised people to such a condition, that they managed, with piety and justice, a government which they had acquired by violence and oppression.

CHAP. III. OF TULLUS HOSTILIUS. To Numa Pompilius succeeded Tullus Hostilius, to whom the kingdom was voluntarily given in honour of his ability. It was he that established military discipline, and the whole art of war. Having, therefore, trained the youth in an extraordinary manner, he ventured to defy the Albans, a powerful, and, for a long time, a leading people. But as both sides, being equal in strength, were weakened by frequent engagements, the fortunes of the two people, to bring the war to a speedier decision, were committed to the Horatii and Curiatii, three twin-brothers, chosen on each side. It was a doubtful and noble conflict, and had a wonderful termination. For after three were wounded on one side, and two killed on the other, the Horatius who survived, adding subtlety to valour, counterfeited flight in order to separate his enemies, and then, attacking them one by one, as they were able to pursue him, overcame them all. Thus (an honour rarely attained by any other) a victory was secured by the hand of

one man.

But this victory he soon after sullied by a murder. He had observed his sister in tears at the sight of the spoils that he wore, which had belonged to one of the enemy betrothed to her, and chastised the love of the maiden, so unseasonably manifested, with his sword. The laws called for the punishment of the crime ; but esteem for his valour saved the murderer, and his guilt was shielded by his glory.

The Alban people did not long keep their faith ; for being called out, according to the treaty, to assist the Romans in the war against Fidenæ, they stood neutral betwixt the two parties, waiting for a turn of fortune. But the crafty king of the Romans, seeing his allies ready to side with the enemy, roused the courage of his army, pretending that he had ordered them so to act; hence hope arose in the breasts of our men, and fear in those of the enemy. The deceit of the traitors was accordingly without effect; and, after the enemy was conquered, Tullus caused Metius Fufetius, as a breaker of the league, to be tied between two chariots, and torn in pieces by swift horses. Alba itself, which, though the parent of Rome, was nevertheless its rival, he demolished, but previously removed all the wealth of the place, and the inhabitants themselves, to Rome, that thus a kindred city might seem not to have been destroyed, but to have been re-united to its own body.

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Next reigned Ancus Marcius, a grandson of Numa Pompilius, and of a similar disposition. He encompassed the citywith a wall, made a bridge over the Tiber, that flows through the town, and settled the colony of Ostia at the junction of the river with the sea ; even then, apparently, feeling a presentiment, that the riches and supplies of the whole

world would be brought to that maritime store-house of the city.

CHAP. V. OF TARQUINIUS PRISCUS. Afterwards, Tarquinius Priscus, though sprung from a 1 Ch. IV. The city] Mænia muro amplexus est.

" That moenia is often used for the buildings in cities, is shown by Salmas. ad Lamprid. Commoc!., c. 17; Schulting, ad Senec. Controv., vi.; and Gronov. Obs., ii., 12.” Duker.

country beyond the sea, making application for the throne, obtained it through his industry and accomplishments; for, having been born at Corinth, he had joined to his Grecian wit the arts of Italy. This king increased the authority of the senate by adding to its number, and augmented the tribes with additional centuries ; for Attius Nævius, a man, eminent in augury, forbade their number to be increased. The king, for a trial of Nævius's skill, asked him if that which he had conceived in his inind could be done? The other, having tried the question by augury, answered that it could. I was thinking then, replied the king, whether I could cut this whetstone with my razor. You can then, rejoined the augur; and the king cut it. Hence augury came to be a sacred institution among the Romans.

Nor was the ability of Tarquinius greater in peace than in war; for he reduced, by frequent attacks, the twelve tribes of. Etruria, from whom were adopted the fasces, robes of state, curule-chairs, rings, horse-trappings, military cloaks, and the gown called prætexta. Hence also came the custom of riding in triumph, in a gilded chariot, with four horses; as well as embroidered togæ, and striped tunics; and, in fine, all ornaments and marks of distinction by which regal dignity is rendered imposing.

CHAP. VI. OF SERVIUS TULLIUS. Servius Tullius was the next that assumed the government; nor was the meanness of his extraction any hindrance to his exaltation, though he was the son of a female slave.. For Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius Priscus, had improved his talents

, which were extraordinary, by a liberal education; and a flame, that had been seen surrounding his head, had. portended that he would be famous. Being, therefore, on the death of Tarquinius, put in the king's place, by the aid of the queen, (as if merely for a time, he exercised the government, thus fraudulently obtained, with such effect, that he seemed to have obtained it by right. By this king the Roman people were submitted to a census, disposed into classes, and divided into curiæ and companies; and, through his eminent ability, the whole commonwealth was so regulated, that all distinctions of estate, dignity, age, employments, and

offices, were committed to registers, and a great city was governed with all the exactness of the smallest family.

CHAP. VII. OF TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS. The last of all the kings was Tarquinius, to whom the name of Superbus, or the Proud, was given, on account of his deportment. He chose rather to seize by violence, than patiently to wait for, the kingdom of his grandfather, which was held from him by Servius, and, having set some assassins to murder him, managed the power, obtained by crime, not more justly than he gained it. Nor did his wife Tullia differ from him in disposition ; for, to salute her husband king, as she was riding in her chariot, she drove her startled horses over the blood-stained corpse of her father. He himself offended the senate by putting some of them to death, disgusted the whole nation by his pride, (which, to men of right feelings, is more intolerable than cruelty,) and, after glutting his inhumanity at home, turned at length against his enemies. Thus the strong towns in Latium were taken, Ardea, Ocriculum, Gabii, Suessa, Pometia.

He was also cruel to his own family; for he scrupled not to scourge his son, in order that he might gain credit with

' the enemy when feigning himself a deserter. This son, being received, as he had wished, at Gabii, and consulting his father what he desired to have done, the father answered (what pride !) by striking off1, with his staff, the heads of some poppies that chanced to grow higher than the rest, wishing it thence to be understood that the chief men at Gabii were to be put to death.

From the spoils of the captured cities, however, he built a temple, at the consecration of which, though the other gods gave up their ground, Juventus and Terminus, strange to say, stood firm. Yet the obstinacy of these deities pleased the augurs, as it promised that all would be firm and endur

? The father answered (what pride !) by striking off, &c.] Excutiens-(quæ superbia !) sic respondit. “Florns, in ascribing this to pride, speaks rather with reference to Tarquinius' general character for pride, than according to what was really the case on this occasion; for it was rather to be attributed to prudence, in order to prevent his designs from being betrayed.” Grævius. There is a similar misrepresentation a little above, where the scourging of Sextus Tarquinius, which was merely a stratagem, is attributed to his father's cruelty.

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