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VII. But, perhaps, when he was made prætor, he conducted himself ith propriety and abstinence. On the contrary, did he not spread uch devastation through his province that our allies endured or exlected nothing worse in war than they experienced in peace, under is government of interior Africa? He carried off, from that country, I that could either be taken away on credit, or crammed into vessels. le carried off, I say, Conscript Fathers, whatever he pleased; and barained with Cæsar, for ten thousand pounds', that he should not be rought to trial. If any of these statements are false, Sallust, refute hem at once, and show by what means you, who, a short time before, ould not redeem even the house of your father, were able to purchase, is if you had been enriched in a dream, those expensive gardens, with he villa of Caius Cæsar at Tibur, and the rest of your possessions? Were you not ashamed to ask why I had bought the house of Crassus, shen you yourself are the proprietor of an ancient country-seat which ince belonged to Cæsar? Having just before, I say, eaten up, or ather devoured, your patrimony, by what means did you suddenly become so wealthy and affluent? For who would make you his leir?-a person whom no one thinks respectable enough for an icquaintance, unless he be of the same description and character as yourself?

VIII. Or can we suppose that the merits of your ancestors exalt you in your own estimation? But, whether we say that you resemble hem, or that they resemble you, no addition could be made to the guilt and impurity of the whole family. Or shall we rather imagine that your own honours render you insolent ? But do you, O Crispus: Sallust, think it as much to be twice a senators and twice a quæstor, as to be twice a consul and twice to obtain a triumph? He who is eager to speak against another, ought to be free from fault himself; he only can properly reproach his neighbour, who will hear no just accusation from him?. But you, the parasite of every table, the pathic

of every couch when your age allowed, and afterwards the adulterer, are a disgrace to every order, and perpetually remind us of the civil

Ten thousand pounds] Sestertio duodecies. The exact sum will be 96861, 18s. 2d. 2 Guilt and impurity of the whole family] Nihil ad omnium scelus ac nequitiam addi potest. This is scarcely consistent with c. 5, where he abstains from saying anything against Sallust's father.

3 Twice a senator, &c.] Tantidem putas esse bis senatorem, et bis quæstorena fieri, quanti bis consularem, et bis triumphalem. “Sallust, to his great disgrace, was made a senator twice, through having been expelled from the senate; but Cicero was made bis consularis to his great honour, having been exiled when he was a consularis, and afterwards recalled to the enjoyment of all his dignities. He may be called bis triumphalis in the same sense, since he had gained a triumph, and this honour, though not lost by his banishment, may be considered as having been renewed at his return." Cortius.

4 Who will hear no just accusation from him] Qui non potest verum ab altero audire. “This is, cui non ab altero vera crimina objici possunt, is demum maledicere alteri potest. But I suspect that the passage is corrupt.” Cortius.

warl. For what worse calamity do we endure from it, than that seeing you reinstated in this assembly? But forbear to attack good men with forwardness of speech; forbear to foster the vice of an intemperate tongue; forbear to form your opinion of every man by your own conduct; for, by such conduct, you can never acquire a friend, and appear willing to have an enemy?.

I shall say nothing more, Conscript Fathers, for I have observed that those who give unveiled narratives of the crimes of others, often incur the disgust of their auditors, even more than those who have committed them. For my own part, it must be my care to say:, not what Sallust may deservedly hear, but what I myself may decently utter.

1 Perpetually remind us of the civil war] Escivilis belli memoria. “Because it was the civil war that restored Sallust to the senate." Cortius.

2 An enemy] Meaning himself, as Cortius thinks.

3 It must be my care to say, $c.] Ratio habenda estut ea dicam. These words seem more appropriate to the commencement than the conclusion of a speech.



THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. The Roman people, during seven hundred years, from the time of king Romulus to that of Cæsar Augustus, performed such mighty acts both in peace and war, that if any one compares the greatness of their empire with its years, he will think it out of proportion to its agel. So far throughout the world have they extended their arms, that those who read their exploits, learn the fate, not of one people only, but of all mankind. So numerous are the toils and dangers in which they have been exercised, that ability and fortune seem to have concurred in establishing their sway.

As it is of the highest importance, therefore, to learn this history as well as others, but as the vastness of the subject is a hindrance to the knowledge of it, and the variety of topics distracts the faculty of attention, I shall follow the example of those who describe the face of the earth, and shall comprise the whole representation of the matter, as it were, in a small tablet, adding, something, as I hope, to the admiration with which this eminent people are regarded, by showing their whole grandeur together and at one view.' if

! Out of proportion to its age] Ætatem ultra. “He will think that so much could not have been done in so short a space of time.” Freinshemius.

2 Ability] Virtus. In the same sense as in Sallust, Cat., c. 1, and elsewhere: see the Notes. So Florus, at the commencement of c. 3, says of Tullus Hostilius, Cui in honorem virtutis regnum ultro datum.

* This history] Hoc. I follow Duker's text, in which the passage stands thus: Quare quum præcipuè hoc quoque, sicut cætera, operæ pretium sit cognoscere, tamen quia, gc. But it is probably corrupt. In some copies the words sicut cætera are wanting, and in some the word sigillatim is found after cognoscere. Grævius conjectures that Florus wrote Quare cùm præcipua quæque operæ pretium sit cognoscere sigillatim, tamen quia, &c.

· Distracts the faculty of attention] Aciem intentionis abrumpit. “So wo say abrumpere sermonem.” Minellius.

• Face of the earth] Terrarum situs. Situations of places on the earth.


any one, then, contemplates the Roman people as he would contemplate a man, and considers its whole age, how it had its origin, how it grew up, how it arrived at a certain vigour of manhood, and how it has since, as it were, grown old, he will observe four degrees and stages of its existence. Its first period was under its kings, lasting nearly two hundred and fifty years, during which it struggled round its mother against its neighbours; this was its infancy. Its next period extended from the consulship of Brutus and Collatinus to that of Appius Claudius and Quintus Fulvius, a space of two hundred and fifty years, during which it subdued Italy; this was a time of action for men and arms, and

therefore call it its youth. The next period was one of two hundred years, to the time of Cæsar Augustus, in which it subdued the whole world; this may accordingly be called the manhood, and robust maturity, of the empire. From the reign of Cæsar Augustus to our own age is a period of little less than two hundred years, in which, from the inactivity of the Cæsars, it has grown old and lost its strength, except that it now raises its arms under the emperor Trajan, and, contrary to the expectation of all, the old age of the empire, as if youth were restored to it, renews its vigour.

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The founder of the city and empire was Romulus, the son of Mars and Rhea Sylvia. The priestess, when pregnant, confessed this fact of herself, nor did report, soon afterwards, testify a doubt of it, as, being thrown, with his brother Remus, into the river by order of Amulius, he could not be destroyed ; for not only did the Tiber repress its stream, but a she-wolf, leaving her young, and following the children's cries, offered her teats to the infants, and acted towards them the part of a mother. Being found, in these circumstances, under a tree, the king's shepherd carried them into a cottage, and brought them up.

The metropolis of Latium, at that time, was Alba, built by Iulus; for he had disdained Lavinium, the city of his father


Æneas. Amulius, the fourteenth descendant from them?, was now reigning there, having dethroned his brother Numitor, of whose daughter Romulus was the son. Romulus, in the first ardour of youth, drove Amulius from the citadel, and restored his grandfather. Being fond, however, of the river, and of the mountains where he had been brought up, he thought of founding among them the walls of a new city. But as he and his brother were twins, it was resolved to consult the gods which of the two should commence the work, and enjoy the sovereignty. Romulus, accordingly, took his station on Mount Aventine, and Remus on Mount Palatine. Romulus, first saw six vultures; Remus was behind him in time, but saw twelve. Being thus superior in point of augury, Romulus proceeded to build the city, with full expectation that it would prove a warlike one, for so the birds, accustomed to blood and prey, seemed to promise.

For the defence of the new city a rampart appeared sufficient. While Remus was deriding its diminutiveness, and showing his contempt for it by leaping over it, he was, whether by his brother's order is uncertain, put to death. He was certainly the first victim, and consecrated the fortification of the new city with his blood.

But Romulus had formed the idea of a city, rather than a real city; for inhabitants were wanting. In the neighbourhood there was a grove, which he made a place of refuge> ; and immediately an extraordinary number of men, some Latin and Tuscan shepherds, others from beyond the seas, Phrygians who had come into the country under Æneas, and Arcadians under Evander, took up their residence in it. Thus of various elements, as it were, he formed one body, and was himself the founder of the Roman people. But a people consisting only of men could last but one age; wives were therefore sought from the neighbouring nations, and, as they were not obtained, were seized by force. For a pretence being made of celebrating some equestrian games, the young women who came to see them, became a prey; and this immediately gave rise to wars. The Vejentes were routed and put to flight. The city of the Cæninenses was taken and demolished; and Romulus also, with his own hands,

1 Ch. I. From them] Ab his. That is, from Æneas and Iulus. It should properly be ab hoc, from Æneas only.

2 A place of refuge] Asylum.


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