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gles with himself, disturbed alike in his thoughts and his gestures, which, even when he was silent, betrayed the secret agitation of his mind. At last, however, he ordered that Sylla should be sent for, and, according to his desire, laid an ambush for Jugurtha.

As soon as it was day, and intelligence was brought that Jugurtha was at hand, Bocchus, as if to meet him and do him honour, went forth, attended by a few friends, and our quæstor, as far as a little hill, which was full in the view of the men who were placed in ambush. To the same spot came Jugurtha with most of his adherents, unarmed, according to agreement; when immediately, on a signal being given, he was assailed on all sides by those who were lying in wait. The others were cut to pieces, and Jugurtha himself was delivered bound to Sylla, and by him conducted to Marius.

CXIV. At this period war was carried on unsuccessfully by our generals Quintus Cæpio and Marcus Manlius, against the Gauls; with the terror of which all Italy was thrown into consternation. Both the Romans of that day, indeed, and their descendants, down to our own times, maintained the opinion that all other nations must yield to their valour, but that they contended with the Gauls, not for glory, but merely in self-defence. But after the war in Numidia was ended, and

it was announced that Jugurtha was coming in chains to Rome, Marius, though absent from the city, was created consul, and Gaul decreed to him as his province. On the first of January he triumphed as consul, with great glory. At that timel the hopes and dependence of the state were placed on him.

I CXIV. At that time] tempestate. “In many manuscripts is found ex tempestate, by which the sense is wholly perverted. Sallust signifies that Marius did not continue always deserving of such honour; for, as is said in c. 63, “ he was afterwards carried headlong by ambition.'” Kritzius.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE JUGURTHINE WAR.

EXTRACTED FROM DE BROSSES.

A.U.c.

1.

545. Coss. M. CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS, T. QUINTIUS CRIS

PINUS.- Masinissa succeeds to the throne of his father

Gala. 549.-M. CORNELIUS CETHEGUS, P. SEMPRONIUS TUDITANUS.

-Masinissa, driven from his dominions by Syphax, king

of another part of Numidia, joins the Romans. 550,-CN. SERVILIUS CÆPIO, C. SERVILIUS NEPOS.--Syphax

is taken prisoner. Masinissa is restored to his throne, and unites all Numidia under his

sway. 595.-Q. FULVIUS NOBILIOR, T. ANNIUS LUSUS.

About this time Jugurtha is born. 605.-SP. POSTHUMIUS ALBINUS, L. CALPURNIUS Piso.-

Masinissa, after a reign of sixty years, dies, leaving three sons, Micipsa, Mastanabal, and Gulussa; but the

two latter dying, Micipsa becomes sole king. 613.-C. LÆLIUS SAPIENS, Q. SERVILIUS CÆPIO.—The

siege of Numantia is commenced, during which Jugur

tha and Marius serve together under Scipio. 620.—P. MUTIUS SCAVOLA, L. CALPURNIUS Piso.—Nu

mantia is taken. 632.-Q. FABIUS ÆMILIANUS MAXIMUS, L. OPIMIUS.

Micipsa adopts Jugurtha, son of Mastanabal. 635.—M. PORCIUS CATO, Q. MARCIUS Rex.—Micipsa dies,

after a reign of thirty years, and his two sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal, with Jugurtha, succeed conjointly to his

dominions. 636.-L. CÆCILIUS METELLUS, Q. MUCIUS SCÆVOLA.

Hiempsal is killed by Jugurtha in the first year of his reign. Civil war ensues between Jugurtha and Adherbal, who is defeated, and takes refuge in the Roman province.

A.U.C.

a

637. Coss. C. LICINIUS GETA, Q. Fabius EBURNUS.-Ad

herbal arrives at Rome, whither also Jugurtha sends ambassadors. Both parties plead before the Senate.

Opimius is deputed by the Senate into Africa. 638.-M. ÆMILIUS SCAURUS, M. CÆCILIUS METELLUS.

-Opimus divides Numidia between Adherbal and

Jugurtha. 639.—M. ACILIUS BALBUS, C. PORCIUS Cato.—War is re

newed between Adherbal and Jugurtha. 640.–C. CÆCILIUS METELLUS, Cn. PAPIRIUS CARBO.

Adherbal is defeated, and takes refuge in Cirta, which is besieged by Jugurtha. The Senate sends three com

missioners into Africa, 641.-M. LIVIUS Drusus, L. CALPURNIUS Piso.

Cirta having been besieged more than four months, Adherbal addresses a letter to the Senate. Scaurus goes as deputy into Africa. Cirta is taken, and Adherbal put to death in the sixth year of his reign. Memmius is tribune of

the people. The Romans declare war against Jugurtha. 642.-P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO NASICA, L. CALPURNIUS PISO

BESTIA.-Calpurnius is appointed general of the army in Numidia, and Scaurus second in command. Jugurtha sends ambassadors to Rome, with bribes. The Roman army enters Numidia, and the war is commenced. Jugurtha induces Calpurnius to make a treaty of peace. Calpurnius sets out from Africa, about the month of July, to hold the comitia at Rome. Memmius makes a speech to the people, Sall. Jug. c. 31. Cassius, in consequence of it, is sent into Numidia. Jugurtha

accompanies Cassius to Rome. 643.-M. MINUCIUS RUFUS, Sp. POSTHUMIUS ALBINUS.

Bomilcar, at the instigation of Jugurtha, assassinates Massiva at Rome. Jugurtha returns to Numidia. The consul Albinus enters Numidia with his

army,

but

performs no operation of importance. In the autumn he returns to Rome, leaving the army under the command of his brother Aulus. Mamilius Limetanus becomes

tribune of the people. 644.—Q. CÆCILIUS METELLUS NUMIDICUS, M. JUNIUS

SILANUS.–Aulus leads his army out from its winter quarters in the month of January, and lays siege to

4

A.U.C.

Suthul. He raises the siege, is surprised by Jugurtha, and surrenders on disgraceful terms, making at the same time a treaty with Jugurtha, which the Senate afterwards declare invalid. Albinus returns to Numidia, and resigns the command of the army to the consul Metellus. Metellus chooses for his lieutenant-generals Marius and Rutilius. The Mamilian law is passed, by which Calpurnius, Albinus, and Opimius, are sent into exile. Vacca is taken. Battle near the Muthul. Siege of Zama by Metellus. Affair of cavalry near Sicca. Metellus raises the siege of Zama, and goes into winter

quarters in the Roman province. 645.-SERV. SULPITIUS GALBA, M. ÆMILIUS SCAURUS HOR

TENSIUS.-Jugurtha makes a treaty with Metellus, breaks it, and resumes hostilities. The Numidians surprise the city of Vacca; Metellus recovers it. Nabdalsa and Bomilcar conspire against Jugurtha. Marius quits the army, and obtains the consulship at Rome. Jugurtha is defeated, and throws himself into Thala, which Metellus soon after besieges. C. Annius, with a party of soldiers, is sent as governor to Leptis. Thala is taken ; Jugurtha flees into Getulia, and forms a league with Bocchus, king of Mauretania. The two kings take up their position near Cirta, and Metellus encamps at

no great distance from them. 646.-L. CassiuS LONGINUS, C. MARIUS.— The Senate wish

to continue Metellus in command of the army, but are opposed by the people, who give it to Marius. Marius appoints Manlius and Cinna his lieutenant-generals, harangues the people, makes new levies, and, setting out from Rome, lands at Utica. Metellus triumphs. Marius, assuming the command, has several skirmishes with Jugurtha, and then makes an attempt on the city of

Capsa, which he takes. 647.-C. ATTILIUS SERRANUS, Q. SERVILIUS CÆPIO.—Me

tellus takes a strong fort on the borders of Mauretania. Sylla arrives in the army. Bocchus and Jugurtha again unite their forces, and attack Marius on his march; Marius retires, with some loss, to two neighbouring hills, but attacks and routs the barbarians the following night. Jugurtha and Bocchus are again defeated near Cirta, and

A.U.c.

a

the Roman army goes into winter quarters on the seacoast. Bocchus expresses a wish for peace; Sylla and Manlius have an interview with him. Marius makes an unsuccessful attempt on a fortress of Jugurtha's, Sall.

Jug. c. 103, 104. 648.-P. RUTILIUS Rufus, C. Manlius MAXIMUS.-Boc

chus sends deputies to Marius, who assembles a council to give them audience. The deputies are allowed to proceed as ambassadors to Rome, and the Senate grants Bocchus peace. Sylla goes to confer with Bocchus; is met by his son Volux, who attends him to his father. After some secret negotiation between Bocchus and Sylla, Bocchus betrays Jugurtha into the hands of the Romans.

The conclusion of the Jugurthine War is quite as abrupt as that of the Conspiracy of Catiline. Jugurtha, being conveyed to Rome, was led in triumph, with his two sons, by Marius. But the humiliation which he experienced, on that occasion, was more than his haughty spirit could endure, and he lost his senses before the termination of the procession. He was then led to the Tullian dungeon, the same into which the accomplices of Catiline were afterwards thrown, and precipitated, with great ignominy and violence, to the bottom of it. In his descent, he is said to have exclaimed, “Heavens,

, how cold is this bath of yours!" He survived, according to Plutarch and others, six days. See Plutarch, Vit. Mar. Eutrop. iv., 11, seq. Eutropius, however, says that he was strangled in prison. At the end of some manuscript copies of the Jugurthine War is added the distich,

Si cupis ignotum Jugurthæ noscere letum,

Tarpeiæ rupis pulsus ad ima ruit. But this was the production of somebody more willing to inform others than himself.

“Sylla had medals distributed, on one side of which was the consul in his chariot, drawn by four horses abreast, holding in his right hand the reins, and in his left a palm-branch, with the inscription C. MARIUS, C. F. Cos., and on the other a head of Jupiter Capitolinus, with the words, L. CORNEL. SYLLA, PR. Q. It is a constant tradition, that the two great

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