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A65

CONTENTS

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p. 57 ; Albot Richalm on demons, p. 58 sq.; demons in Transylvania,

p. 59; the general expulsions of evils or devils divided into two classes

according as the evils or devils are invisible and immaterial or are

embodied in a material vehicle, p. 60; general expulsions of invisible evils,

pp. 60-93 ; expulsions instituted on special occasions, mostly during

epidemics, pp. 60-69; these general expulsions of evil tend to become

periodic, and especially annual, p. 70; among the Esquimaux they take

place at the beginning or end of winter, pp. 70-72 ; the ceremony among

the Iroquois and Cherokee Indians, pp. 72-74, among the Incas, pp. 74-76,

in Africa, pp. 76-78; in India the annual expulsion of devils sometimes

takes place at harvest or sowing, pp. 78-80 ; the ceremony in Bali, p. 80

sq., among the Shans, p. 81, in Japan, China, India, and Persia, p. 82 sq.,
in Tonquin, Cambodia, and Siam, pp. 83-85; in Siam on this occasion
the ghosts of the dead come back and are afterwards driven away, p. 85 sq.;
annual return and expulsion of ghosts in Japan, ancient Athens, and
ancient Rome, pp. 86-89; in modern Europe demons and witches annually
banished on the last day of the year, Easter Eve, Walpurgis Night, or

Twelfth Night, pp. 90-93.

§ 15. Scapegoats, pp. 93-134.--General expulsions of evils enibodied in a visible

form or conveyed away in a material vehicle, p. 93 sqq. ; the expelled

_devils sometimes personated by men, p. 94 sq., sometimes embodied in a

wolf or cat, p. 96 59.; demons of disease sent away in boats, pp. 97-101 ;

sickness of community sent away with an animal as a scapegoat, pp. 101-

104 ; public ills laid upon men as scapegoats, p. 104 sq.; the general

expulsion of evils by means of a material vehicle or scapegoat tends to

become periodic, p. 105; annual expulsion of evils in boats and by means

of images, etc., pp. 105-108, by means of animals, as white dogs among

the Iroquois and a goat among the Jews, p. 108 sq.; sins and misfortunes

of people annually laid on a human being, who is killed or driven away,

pp. 109-111; the public scapegoat sometimes a divine animal, p. 111 sq.,

sometimes a divine man, p. 112 sq.; the human scapegoat in Tibet

perhaps a substitute for the Grand Lama, pp. 113-117; general remarks

on the custom of publicly expelling all the ills of a community, p. 117 599.;

when observed annually, the ceremony commonly marks the beginning

of a new year, and is preceded or followed by a period of licence, p. 118 sq.;

reason for choosing a dying god as public scapegoat, p. 120 sq.; in the

ceremony of “ carrying out Death” the dying god of vegetation seems also

to have served as a scapegoat, p. 121 sq.; the human scapegoat in classical

antiquity, p. 122 599.; Mamurius l'eturius at Rome, p. 122 sq.; human

scapegoats among the ancient Greeks, pp. 124-127 ; human scapegoat

sometimes beaten as a purification, p. 127 sq.; beating as a purificatory

rite intended to drive away ghosts, demons, and evil influences in general,

pp. 128-133.

§ 16. Killing the God in Mexico, pp. 134-137.—Mexican custom of dressing a

man as a god, worshipping him for a year or less, then killing and eating
him, p. 134 sq.; thus human representative of the god Tezcallipoca adored
for a year, then sacrificed and devoured, p. 135 sq.; resurrection of slain

man-god represented by skinning him and clothing another person in his
skin, p. 136 sq.

§ 17. The Saturnalia and kindred Festivals, pp. 138-200.-- The Saturnalia the

festival of Saturn, the old god of sowing, p. 138; revelry and licence of

the Saturnalia, p. 139; Saturn formerly represented at the festival by a

mock king who killed himself, pp. 139-142 ; the Carnival nothing but the

Saturnalia held at its old date, p. 143 sq.; February and March the time

of the spring sowing, hence an appropriate season for the Saturnalia,

p. 145; Lent perhaps originally a period of temperance observed by farmers

for the sake of the crops, p. 145 sq.; Buddhist Lent in Burma, p. 146;

Greek parallels to the Saturnalia, p. 146 sq.; the Cronia at Athens,

Olympia, and Rhodes, pp. 147-150 ; the Sacaea at Babylon a festival of

the same type as the Saturnalia, p. 150 sq., probably identical with the Baby-

lonian festival of Zakmuk, pp. 151-153 ; Jewish festival of Purim identical

with Zakmuk and the Sacaea, pp. 153-157; Haman and Mordecai reminis-

cences of the Zoganes or mock king of the Sacaea, p. 157 sq.; Mordecai and

Esther identical with the Babylonian deities Marduk and Ishtar, p. 158;

Haman and Vashti perhaps deities (Humman and Vashti) of the Elanites,

p. 158 sq.; hence the Zoganes personated a god, whether Marduk, Humman,

or another, p. 159 sq.; probably he paired with a woman who represented

Semiramis, that is, Ishtar or Astarte, pp. 160-164; sacred dramas as

magical rites, p. 164 sq. ; Euhemerism and its rival school of mythology

reconciled by doctrine of incarnation, p. 165 sq.; the loves of a divine

pair and the death of the god acted under various names (Adonis and

Aphrodite, Attis and Cybele, etc.) all over the East, p. 166 sq.; legend

of Sardanapalus a distorted reminiscence of the reign and death of the

Zoganes at the Sacaea, p. 167 sq.; Sandan another Asiatic deity of the

same type as Sardanapalus, represented by an effigy, perhaps by a man,

who was burnt every year, pp. 168.172; custom of burning effigies of

Haman at Purim perhaps a relic of custom of burning the man-god at the

Sacaea, p. 172 sq.; a man perhaps formerly hanged or crucified in the

character of Haman at Purim, pp. 173-176; the Fast of Esther originally

a mourning for the death of a man-god like Tammuz, pp. 176-179; dying

and reviving god represented by Haman and Mordecai respectively, their

consorts by Vashti and Esther, pp. 179-181; the Persian “ride of the

Beardless One,” its resemblance to the ride of Mordecai through Susa,

pp. 181-183; both originally modes of representing the triumph of

summer over winter, or of the reviving over the decaying powers of

vegetation, pp. 183-185; resemblance of the mockery and crucifixion of

Christ to the treatment of the mock kings of the Saturnalia and Sacaea,

pp. 186-188; Christ perhaps crucified in the character of Ilaman, pp.

188-191 ; the part of Mordecai perhaps played by Barabbas, pp. 191-194 ;

Barabbas “the Son of the Father,” p. 194 sq.; rapid diffusion of Chris.

tianity in Asia Minor partly accounted for by the manner of Christ's death,

pp. 195-198; general summary-festivals of the type of the Saturnalia at

one time common all over the ancient world from Italy to Babylon and

perhaps still further cast, pp. 198-200.

§ 2. Balder, pp. 236-350.—The Norse god Balder slain by a blow of the mistletoe

and burnt on a pyre, p. 236 sq.; the story probably once acted as a

magical ceremony, p. 237 ; its incidents reappear in the popular festivals

of modern Europe, p. 237 ; fire-festivals of Europe, p. 237 sq.; fire-

festivals in Lent, pp. 238-245; new fire kindled at Easter in both the

Latin and the Greek church, pp. 245-248; the custom probably an old

heathen one, since the practice of annually extinguishing the old fires and

kindling a new one has prevailed in many parts of the world, pp. 248-253 ;

pagan character of the Easter fire-festival, pp. 254-259; Beltane fires on

the first of May, pp. 259-266; the Midsummer fire-festival the most

generally observed of all these ceremonies, p. 266 sq.; Midsummer fires

in Germany, pp. 267-273, in Austria, pp. 273-275, among the Slavs and

Letts, pp. 275-277, among the Magyars, Esthonians, Finns, and Chere.

miss, pp. 277-280, in France, pp. 280-288, in England, Ireland, and

Scotland, pp. 288-293 ; Hallowe'en fires in Scotland and Wales, pp. 293-

297; Midsummer fires in Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, and Greece,

pp. 297-299; effigies burnt in the Midsummer bonfires, p. 299 sq. ;

these fire-festivals originally magical ceremonies to procure sunshine, pp.

300-305; fire-festivals in India and China, pp. 305-311 ; fire-festivals in

antiquity at Castabala in Cappadocia and at Mount Soracte ncar Rome,

p. 311 sq.; intention of leaping over the fire and driving cattle through

it, p. 312 sq.; processions or races with torches a mode of diffusing heat,

P. 313 sq.; effigies burnt in the bonfires represent the tree-spirit, pp. 314.

316; human representatives of the tree-spirit probably burnt in former

days at these festivals, pp. 316-318; custom of drowning human beings

at Midsummer as an offering to the water-spirits, p. 318 sq.; human

beings and animals enclosed in colossal images of wicker-work and burnt

at great festivals by the Druids, p. 319 sq. ; traces of this custom in the

Midsummer Giants of modern Europe and in the practice of burning live

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