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cases.

SPECIES.

vation explains, I believe, some singular facts | competition should be most severe between in nature, such as that of very rare plants allied forms which fill nearly the same place being sometimes extremely abundant in the in the economy of nature, but probably in no few spots where they do exist, and that of one case could we precisely say why one some social plants being social--that is, species has been victorious over another in abounding in individuals—even on the ex- the great battle of life. treme verge of their range. For in such cases A corollary of the highest importance may we may believe that a plant could exist only be deduced from the foregoing remarkswhere the conditions of its life were so favor- namely, that the structure of every organic able that many could exist together, and thus being is related in the most essential yet often save the species from utter destruction. I hidden manner to that of all the other organic should add that the good effects of intercross- beings with which it coines into competition ing and the ill effects of close interbreeding for food or residence, or fron, which it has to no doubt come into play in many of these escape, or on which it preys. This is obvious

in the structure of the teeth and talons of the STRUGGLE FOR LIFE MOST SEVERE BETWEEN tiger, and in that of the legs and claws of the INDIVIDUALS AND VARIETIES OF THE SAME parasite which clings to the hair on the tiger's

body. But in the beautifully-plumed seed of As the species of the same genus usually the dandelion and in the flattened and fringed have, though by no means invariably, much legs of the water-beetle the relation seems at similarity in habits and constitution, and al- first confined to the elements of air and water. ways in structure, the struggle will generally Yet the advantage of plumed seeds no doubt be more severe between them, if they come stands in the closest relation to the land being into competition with each other, than be already thickly clothed with other plants, so tween the species of distinct genera. We see that the seeds may be widely distributed and this in the recent extension over parts of the fall on unoccupied ground. In the waterUnited States of one species of swallow hav- beetle the structure of its legs, so well adapted ing caused the decrease of another species. for diving, allows it to compete with other The recent increase of the missel-thrush in aquatic insects, to hunt for its own prey and parts of Scotland has caused the decrease of to escape serving as prey to other animals. the song-thrush. How frequently we hear The store of nutriment laid

up

within the of one species of rat taking the place of an- seeds of many plants seems at first sight to other species under the most different cli- have no sort of relation to other plants. But mates! In Russia the small Asiatic cockroach from the strong growth of young plants prohas everywhere driven before it its great con- duced from such seeds, as peas and beans, gener. In Australia the importeil hive-bee is when sown in the midst of long grass, it may rapidly exterminating the small stingless be suspected that the chief use of the nutrinative bee. One species of charlock has been ment in the seed is to favor the growth of the known to supplant another species; and so in seedlings whilst struggling with other plants other cases.

We can dimly see why the growing rigorously all around.

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Look at a plant in the midst of its range: of our ignorance on the mutual relations of all why does it not double or quadruple its num- organic beings—a conviction as necessary as bers ? We know that it can perfectly well it is difficult to acquire. All that we can do withstand a little more heat or cold, dampness is to keep steadily in mind that each organic or dryness, for elsewhere it ranges into slight- being is striving to increase in a geometrical ly hotter or colder, damper or drier, districts. ratio; that each at some period of its life, In this case we can clearly see that if we wish during some season of the year, during each in imagination to give the plant the power of generation or at intervals, has to struggle for increasing in numbers we should have to give life and to suffer great destruction. When it some advantage over its competitors or over we reflect on this struggle, we may console the animals which prey on it. On the con- ourselves with the full belief that the war of fines of its geographical range a change of nature is not incessant, that no fear is felt, constitution with respect to climate would that death is generally prompt, and that the vigclearly be an advantage to our plant, but we orous, the healthy and the happy survive and have reason to believe that only a few plants multiply. CHARLES DARWIN, M. A., F. R. S. or animals range so far that they are destroyed exclusively by the rigor of the climate. Not until we reach the extreme confines of life in

RALPH STACKPOLE AND THE the Arctic regions or on the borders of an

QUAKER. utter desert will competition cease. The land

A SKETCH OF KENTUCKY LIFE IN ITS

EARLY DAYS. may be extremely cold or dry, yet there will be competition between some few species, or

“FRIEND," said Nathan, “ what does

" between the individuals of the same species,

thee seek of me?" for the warmest or dampest spots.

“ A fight,” replied Captain Stackpole, utHence we can see that when a plant or tering a war-whoop—“ a fight, strannger, for animal is placed in a new country amongst the love of heaven!" new competitors the conditions of its life will " Thee seeks it of the wrong person," said generally be changed in an essential manner, Nathan, “and I beg thee will get

thee although the climate may be exactly the What !” said Stackpole; “ aren't thee the same as in its former home. If its average Pennsylvania war-horse, the screamer of the numbers are to increase in its new home, we meeting-house ?" should have to modify it in a different way to “I am a man of peace," said the submiswhat we should have had to do in its native sive Slaughter. country; for we should have to give it some “ Yea verily, verily and yea !" cried Ralph, advantage over a different set of competitors snuffling through the nostrils, but assuming or enemies.

an air of extreme indignation. * Strannger, It is good thus to try in imagination to give I've heerd of you. You're the man that holds to any one species an advantage over another. it agin duty and conscience to kill Injuns, the Probably in no single instance should we redskin screamers ! that refuses to defend the know what to do. This ought to convince us women, the splendiferous creaturs! and the

a

away.”

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little children, the squal-a-baby d’ars! And “Hurrah for Bloody Nathan !" cried the wharfo'? Bec'ause as how you're a man of young men, vastly delighted at this unwonted peace and no fight, you superiferous, long- spirit, while Captain Ralph bimself expressed legged, no-souled crittur! But I'm the gen- bis pleasure by leaping into the air, crowing tleman to make a man of you, so down with and dashing off his bat, which he kicked your gun, and, 'tarnal death to me, I'll whip down the hill with as much good-will as he the cowardly devil out of you."

had previously bestowed upon the little dog. Friend,” said Nathan, his humility yield- “Off with

your leather nightcap and down ing to a feeling of contempt, “thee is thee with your rifle,” he cried, giving his own self a cowardly person, or thee wouldn't seek weapon into the hands of a looker-on, “and a quarrel with one thee knows can't fight thee. scrape some of the grease

off

your jacket; for, Thee would not be so ready with thee match.” 'tarnal death to me, I shall give you the Vir

With that he stooped to gather up his ginny lock, fling you headfo’most, and you'll skins—a proceeding that Stackpole, against find yourself in a twinkling sticking fast right whom the laugh was turned by this sally of in the centre of the 'arth."

' Nathan's, resisted by catching him by the “ Thee may find theeself mistaken,” said nape of the neck, twirling him round and Nathan, giving up bis gun to one of the making as if he really would have beaten young men, but, instead of rejecting his hat, him.

pulling it down tight over his brows." There Even this the peaceful Nathan bore with is locks taught among the mountains of Bedout anger or murmuring, but his patience fled ford that may be as good as them learned on when Stackpole, turning to the little dog, the hills of Virginia. I am ready for thee.' " which by bristling its back and growling ex- “ Cock-a-doodle-doo !" cried Ralph Stackpressed a half inclination to take up its mas- pole, springing toward his man and clapping ter's quarrel, applied his foot to its ribs with his hands, one on Nathan's left shoulder, the a violence that sent it rolling some five or other on his right hip. “ Are you ready? six yards down the hill, where it lay for a “ I am,” replied Nathan. tiine yelping and whining with pain.

Down, then, you go, war you a buffalo;" Friend," said Nathan, sternly, “ thee is and with that the captain of horse-thieves put but a dog theeself, to harm the creature. forth his strength, which was very great, in What will thee have with me?"

an effort that appeared to Roland quite irre“A fight! A fight, I tell thee,” replied sistible, though, as it happened, it scarce Captain Ralph, “ till I teach thy leatherified moved Nathan from his position. conscience the new doctrines of Kentucky.” “Thee is mistaken, friend," he cried, ex

· Fight thee I cannot and dare not,” said erting his strength in return, and with an Nathan, and then added, " But if thee must effect that no one had anticipated. Ву have thee deserts, thee shall have them. magic, as it seemed, the heels of the captain Thee prides theeself upon thee courage and of horse-thieves were suddenly seen flying in strength: will thee adventure with me a the air, his head aiming at the earth, upon friendly fall ?"

which it as suddenly descended with the vio

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lence of a bombshell, and there it would THE INHABITANTS OF THE BLACK doubtless have burrowed like the aforesaid

HILLS IN 1846. implement of destruction had the soil been

FROM "THE OREGON TRAIL." * soft enough for the purpose, or exploded into GOVERNMENT OF THE SIOUX.–POWER OF A a thousand fragments had not the shell been

CHIEF. double the thickness of an ordinary skull. VIE Dahcotah or Sioux range over a

TE “ Huzza! Bloody Nathan for ever!" vast territory, from the river St. Peter shouted the delighted villagers.

to the Rocky Mountains. They are divided “He has killed the man,” said Forrester, into several independent bands, united under "but bear witness, all, the fellow provoked no central government and acknowledging no his fate.”

common head. The same language, usages " Thanks to you, strannger, but not so and superstitions form the sole bond between dead as you reckon,” said Ralph, rising to his them. They do not unite even in their wars. feet and scratching his poll with a stare of The bands of the east fight the Objibwas on comical confusion. "I say, strannger, here's the Upper Lakes; those of the west make my shoulders, but whar's my head? Do you incessant war upon the Snake Indians in the reckon I had the worst of it?''

Rocky Mountains. As the whole people is “ Huzza for Bloody Nathan Slaughter! divided into bands, so each band is divided He has whipped the ramping tiger of Salt into villages. Each village has a chief, who River,” cried the young men of the station. ”

is honored and obeyed only so far as his per"Well, I reckon he has,” said the mag- sonal qualities may command respect and nanimous Captain Ralph, picking up his hat. fear. Sometimes he is a mere nominal chief; Then walking up to Nathan, who had taken his sometimes his authority is little short of abdog into his arms to examine into the little ani- solute and his fame and influence reach bemal's hurts, he cried with much good-humored yond his own village, so that the whole band energy, Thar's my fo'-paw in token I've to which he belongs is ready to acknowledge had enough of

you

and want no mo'. But I him as their head. This was a few years say, Nathan Slaughter,” he added as he since the case with the Oyillallah. Courage, grasped the victor's hand, “it's nothing you address and enterprise may raise any warrior can boast of to be the strongest man in Ken- to the highest honor, especially if he be the tucky and the most sevagarous at a tussel,

son of a former chief or a member of a nuh’yar among murdering Injuns and scalping merous family, to support him and avenge his runnegades, and keep your fists off their top- quarrels; but when he has reached the dignots. Thar’s my idea ; for I go for the doe- nity of chief and the old men and warriors by

! trine that every able-bodied man should sarve a peculiar ceremony have formally installed his country and his neighbors and fight their bim, let it not be imagined that he assumes foes, and them that does is men and gentle any of the outward signs of rank and honor. men, and them that don't is cowards and ras- He knows too well on how frail a tenure he cals: that's my idea. And so fawwell." holds his station. He must conciliate his ROBERT MONTGOMERY BIRD.

* Published by Little, Brown & Co.

6

uncertain subjects. Many

Many a man in the vil- | rancorous hatred, transmitted from father to lage lives better, owns more squaws and son and inflamed by constant aggression and more horses and goes better clad than he. retaliation. Many times a year in every vilLike the Teutonic chiefs of old, he ingratiates lage the Great Spirit is called upon, fasts are himself with his young men by making them made, the war-parade is celebrated and the presents, thereby often impoverishing himself. warriors go out by handfuls at a time against If he fails to gain their favor, they will set the enemy. This fierce spirit awakens their his authority at naught and may desert him most eager aspirations and calls forth their at any moment; for the usages of his people greatest energies. It is chiefly this that have provided no means of enforcing his au- saves them from lethargy and utter abasement. thority. Very seldom does it happen—at Without its powerful stimulus they would be least, among these Western bands--that a like the unwarlike tribes beyond the mounchief attains to much power unless he is the tains, scattered among the caves and rocks head of a numerous family. Frequently the like beasts and living on roots and reptiles. village is principally made up of his relatives These latter have little of humanity except and descendants, and the wandering com- the form, but the proud and ambitious Dahmunity assumes much of the patriarchal cotah warrior can sometimes boast heroie vircharacter.

tues. It is seldom that distinction and influThe Western Dahcotah have no fixed hab- ence are attained among them by any other itations. Hunting and fighting, they wander course than that of arms. Their superstition, incessantly, through summer and winter. however, sometimes gives great power to Some follow the herds of buffalo over the those among them who pretend to the chawaste of prairie; others traverse the Black racter of magicians, and their orators—such as Hills, thronging, on horseback and on foot, they are—have their share of honor. through the dark gulfs and sombre gorges, and emerging at last upon the “parks," those

A PATRIARCH. beautiful but most perilous hunting-grounds.

One morning we were summoned to the The buffalo supplies them with the neces- lodge of an old man, the Nestor of his tribe. saries of life with habitations, food, cloth- We found him half sitting, half reclining, on ing, beds and fuel, strings for their bows, a pile of buffalo-robes; his long hair-jetglue, thread, cordage, trail-ropes for their black, though he had seen some eighty winhorses, coverings for their saddles, vessels ters—hung on either side of his thin features. to hold water, boats to cross streams and the His gaunt but symmetrical frame did not means of purchasing all that they want from more clearly exhibit the wreck of bygone the traders. When the buffalo are extinct, strength than did his dark, wasted features, they too must dwindle away.

still prominent and commanding, bear the stamp of mental energies. Opposite the pa

triarch was his nephew, the young aspirant War is the breath of their postils. Against Mahto-Tatonka, and besides these there were most of the neighboring tribes they cherishı a one or two women in the lodge.

LOVE OF WAR.

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