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All that pours profuse
From things, perpetual, the vast ocean joins
Of air sublime ; which if to things again
Paid not, thus ballancing the loss sustain'd,
All into air would dissipate and die,
Hence, born from things, to things air still retures
Ceaseless, as prove their fluctuating forms.

GOOD.

But these opinions continued in the state of vague conjectures, till the matter was explained by the sagacity of Hales, and of those philosophers who followed his illustrious career.

It was not till the time of Bacon, who first taught mankind to investigate natural phenomena, that the atmosphere began to be investigated with precision. Galileo introduced the study by pointing out its weight; a subject which was soon after investigated completely by Torricelli, Paschal, &c. Its density and elasticity were ascertained by Boyle and the Florence Academicians. Mae riotte measured its dilatability ; Hooke, Newton, Boyle, Der. ham, poioted out its relation to light, to sound, and to electri. city. Newton explained the effect produced upon it by moisture; from which Halley attempted to explain the changes in its weight indicated by the barometer. But a complete enumeration of the discoveries made upon the atmosphere in general belongs to pneumatics; a science which treats professedly of the mechanical pro. perties of air.

The knowledge of the component parts of the atmosphere did not keep pace with the investigation of its mechanical properties. The opinions of the earlier chemists concerning it are too sague and absurd to merit any particular notice. Boyle, however, and his contemporaries, put it beyond doubt that the atmosphere con. tained two distinct substances. 1. An elastic fluid distinguisbed by the name of air. 2. Water in a state of vapour. Besides these two bodies, it was supposed that the atmosphere contained a great variety of other substances, which were continually mis. ing with it from the earth, and which often altered its properties, and rendered it noxious or fatal. Since the discovery of carbonic acid gas by Dr. Black, it has been ascertained that this elastic fluid always constitutes a part of the atmosphere. The constitueot parts of the atmosphere therefore are,

THE

GALLERY

NATURE AND ART;

OR,

A TOUR THROUGH CREATION AND SCIENCE,

BY THE REV. EDWARD POLEHAMPTON,

FELLOW OF KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE; Assisted by Distinguished Writers in the various Departments of the Work:

ILLUSTRATED WITH ONE HUNDRED PLATES, From New Designs, DESCRIPTIVE OF THE WONDERS OF NATURE AND ART.

BENEATH KIM, WITR NEW WONDER, NOW AL VIEWS,
IN NARROW ROOM, NATURE'S WHOLE 'WEALTE.

MILTON.

IN SIX VOLUMES.

VOL. IV.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY R. WILKS, 89, CHANCERY-LANE; SOLD BY CRADOCK AND JOY, PATERNOSTER.ROW; RODWELL, NEW

BOND-STREET; UNDERWOOD, FLEET.STREET;

AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS.

26 CCT 1961

OF
VOLUME IV.

PART I.
GALLERY OF NATURE.

Page

BOOK II.

GEOLOGY continued.
Chap:
XXXIV. Atmospherical Department
Sect. i. Composition of the Atmosphere

ji. Atmospheric Air
iii, Atmospheric Water
iv. Atmospheric Carbonic Acid
v. Atmospheric unknown Bodies

vi, Variation of the Atmosphere
XXXV. Zones and Climates
XXXVI Nature, Properties, and Variations of Heat
Sect. i. Sources and Effects of Heat

ii. Variation of Local lleat
üïi. Variation of leat in Countries best known, or most

exposed to it
XXXVII. Degrees and Effects of severe Cold in High

Latitudes, &c. .
Sect. i. Cold of the South Polar Regions

ii. Ice Islands, and Sufferings of Lieutenant Riou, in

the Guardian Frigate
iii. Cold of the North Polar Regions, as ascertained by

Lord Mulgrave
iy. The same, as ascertained by Capt. Cook, with his

Discovery of a Passage from the Pacific Ocean,
Northward

.
v. State of the Globe within the Arctic Circle

11 vi. Effects of Cold at Hudson's Bay, in 1741.2

114 vii. Extraordinary degree of Cold at Glasgow, in Jan. 1780

121 XXXVIII. Evaporation XXXIX. Formation and Nature of Dew, Mist, Fogs,

Clouds, Rain,' Snow, apd Hail Sect. i. General Remarks

ib. ji. Annual Fall of Rain jii, Fall of Butter-like Dew in Ireland

152 iv. Dense Fog on the Island of Sumatra

153 v. Violent Showers of Rain in different places

155 vi. Storm of Salt Rain

157 VOL. IV.

106

129

189

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