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8. Account of two considerable Hurricanes in

Northamptonshire

252

9. Fiery Whirlwind in Norfolk

253

10. Whirlwinds of Sand

ib.

XLI. On the Prester, or Water-Spout

256

Sect. i. General Remarks

ii. Genuine Presters, or Water-Spouts

262

1. Observed in the Mediterranean

ib.

2. In the Moors of Lancashire

265

3. Near the Lipari Islands

266

jii. Mimic Water-Spouts

267

1. At Hatfield, Yorkshire

ib.

2. Another at same place

268

3. In Lincolnshire

269

XLII. General Nature and Properties of the Electric

Fluid

270

Sect. i. Its relation to common Matter

ib,

ii. Communication and Velocity of Electricity

275

iii. Atinospherical Electricity

297

XLIII. Electricity of 'Thunder and Lightning

300

Sect. i. General History of this Interesting Discovery ib.

ii. Invention and Curious Properties of the Electrical

Kite

305

iii. Means of preventing Mischief from Lightning 308

iv. Thunder-Storms remarkable for their Violence or

Effects

312

v. Death of Professor Richman by Lightning

353

XLIV. On Magnetism

362

Sect. i. General Remarks on the Theory of Magnetism

ib.

ii. On the Cause of the Change in the Magnetic Needle 377

iii. Magnetic Experiments

387

XLV. Aurora Borealis and Australis

393

Sect. i. General History and Remarks

ib.

ii. Surprising Lights in the Air, March 6, 1716 400

iii. Lumen Boreale, or Streaming

414

iv. Remarkable Red Lights seen in various places in

the Air, Dec. 16, 1737

416

V. Account of Luminous Arches

421

XLVI. Blazing Balls and Burning Stones

425

Sect, i. General Remarks

ib.

ii. Various Extraordinary Meteors, or Lights, in the

Sky

427

iii. Blazing Meteor seen all over England, March 19,

1719

432

iv. Meteor of a Flaming Sword seen in Yorkshire, and

elsewhere

441

v. Luminous Meteor at Peckham

442

vi. Various Fiery Meteors, with Observations

ib.

.

Chap

Page

Sect. vii. Various Fiery Meteors, with Balls that have de.

scended to the Earth

457

viii. Observations on Fire-Balls

460

ix. Aërolites, or Meteoric Stones

468

1. General History and Observations

ib.

2. Lunar, or Selenitic Origin of Meteoric Stones 475

x. Falling or Shooting Stars

492

XLVII. On Luminous and Burning Exhalations under

the Names of Ignes Fatui; Will-o'-the-

Wisps; Jack - 0' - Lanthorns; Mariner's

Lights; and St. Helmo's Fires

494

Sect. i. General Remarks

ib.

ii. Of the Ignis Fatuus, as observed in England 498

iii. Luminous and Inflammable Exhalations on the

Snows of the Appennines

501

iv. Fiery Exhalations or Damp, that set on Fire various

Hay Ricks in Pembrokeshire

502

XLVIII. On Atmospheric Deceptions, Fata Morgana,

Mirages, Glamer or Looming, Ialos, Mul-

tiplicd Rainbows; Parhelions and Parasele-

nítes, or Mock-Suns, and Mock-Moons;

Glories; Refraction of Iceland Crystal 504

Sect. i. Explanation of the principle of Atmospheric Decep-
tions

ib.

ii. Fata Morgana; or Optical Appearances of Figures

in the Sea and Air, in the Faro of Messina 509

iii. Singular Instance of Atmospherical Refraction, by

which the Coast of Picardy was brought apparently

close to that of lastings

514

iv. On Refractions and Double Refractions in the Atmo.

sphere

516

v. Farhelia, or Mock.Suns, seen at Dantzic

521

vi. Pyramidal Appearance in the Heavens, observed in

Essex

522

vii. Parhelia at Sudbury, Suffolk

523

viji. Two Mock-Suns and an Arc of a Rainbow in.

verted

524

ix. Beautiful Irridescent Arches in a Mist

526

x. Peculiar Solar and Luvar Irises in South America

528

xi, Lunar Rainbow in Derbyshire

529

xii, Description of a Glory on Mount Realt, near the

Vale of Clwyd

530

XLIX. Of Sounds and Echoes

593

Sect. i. General Observations on the Nature of Sound,

Whispering Domes, and Echoes

ib.

ii. Extraordinary Whispering Places and Echoes 546

iii. Singular Sympathetic Action of Two Pendulum

Clocks on each other

547

THE

GALLERY

OF

NATURE AND ART

PART I.

N A T U R E.

BOOK II.
GEOLOGY.

[CONTINUED.)

CHAP. XXXIV.

ATMOSPHERICAL DEPARTMENT.

We now advance to the atmospherical phænomena of the science of Geology, in the extensive sense in which we have em. ployed this term; and shall proceed to a brief survey of whatever is most curious or worthy of observation in the composition of the Atmosphere; the variation of Climate; the extremes of Heat and Cold; the existence of Electricity and electric Powers, as Thunder and Lightning, Aurora Borealis, Water-spouts ; Falling-stars, and Ignes Fatui ; Echoes, Wind, Hurricanes, and Storms; the origin of Mist, Dew, Sleet, Snow, Mirages, or Fata Morgana, Meteoric, Stones, and various other appearances connected with or depen. dent upon the preceding; and which collectively constitute the Science of Meteorology.

FOL. IV.

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THz uzasiete is that is risite este ideich servesds the arth to 2a szken bergit, and is coses it os ar side. It was thus desorieated by the Greeks in conseq=esse of the raroers which are contis.y mixing with it, or coabiaed in it la contra piztiaz the nature of the atzospbere ibere are two points of considerable importaace to be atteded to, reçectiaz which therefore we shall of a sursary of the best established facts and opinions of the present day; and tbese are the materials that enter into its composition, and the changes to which it is liable.

SECTION 1.

Composition of the Al nosphere. NEITHER the properties nor the composition of the atmosphere seems to have occupied much of the attention of the ancients. Aristotle considered it as one of the four elements, situated be. tween the regions of water and fire, and mingled with two erhalations, the dry and moist; the first of which occasioned thunder, lightning, and wind; while the second produced rain, snow, and hail. The ancients, in general, seem to have considered the blue colours of the sky as essential to the atmosphere; and sereral of their philosophers believed that it was the constituent principle of other bodies, or at least that air and other bodies are mutually convertible into each other. Thus Lucretius:

Semper enim quodcunque fuit de rebus, id omno
Aeris io magnum fertur mare : qui nisi contra
Corpora retribuat rebus, recreetque fluenteis,
Omnia jam resoluta forent, et in aera versa.
Haud igitur cessat gigni de rebus et in res
Recidere asidue, quoniam fluere omnia constat.

Lib. v. 974.

• From étueus, a vapour, and paipa, a sphere,

All that pours profase
From things, perpetual, the vast ocean joins
of air sublime ; which if to things again
Paid not, thus ballancing the loss sustain'd,
All into air would dissipate and die.
Hence, born from tbiogs, to things air still reteras
Ceaseless, as prove their factuating forms.

GOOD.
But these opinions continued in the state of vague conjectures,
till the matter was explained by the sagacity of Hales, and of tbose
philosophers who followed his illustrious career.

It was not till the time of Bacon, who first taught bankiod to
• investigate natural phenomena, that the atmosphere began to be

investigated with precision. Galileo introduced the study by
pointing out its weight; a subject which was soon after investigated
completely by Torricelli, Paschal, &c. Its density and elasticity
were ascertained by Boyle and the Florence Academicians. Ma
riotte measured its dilatability ; Hooke, Newton, Boyle, Der.
ham, pointed out its relation to light, to sound, and to electri.
city. Newton explained the effect produced upon it by moisture;
from which Halley attempted to explain the changes in its weight
indicated by the barometer. But a complete enumeration of the
discoveries made upon the atmosphere in general belongs to pneu.
matics; a science which treats professedly of the mechanical pro.
perties of air.

The knowledge of the component parts of the atmosphere did
dot keep pace with the investigation of its mechanical properties.
The opinions of the earlier chemists concerning it are too vague
and absurd to merit any particular notice. Boyle, however, and
his contemporaries, put it beyond doubt that the atmosphere con.
taiocd two distinct substances. 1. An elastic fluid distinguisbed
by the name of air. 2. Water in a state of vapoor. Besides
these two bodies, it was supposed that the atmosphere contained
a great variety of other substances, which were continually mir.
ing with it from the earth, and which often altered its properties, •
and rendered it noxious or fatal. Since the discovery of carbonic
acid gas by Dr. Black, it has been ascertained that this elastic fluid
always constitutes a part of the atmosphere. The constituent parts
of the atmosphere therefore are,

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