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ib.
ib.

Chap

v. Violent Showers of Rain in different places

155

vi. Storm of Salt Rain

157

vii. Volcanic Showers, or Rain

161

1. General Remarks

2. Showers of Ashes in the Archipelago

3. Shower of Dust that fell on a Ship near Iceland ib.

4. New kind of Rain

162

5. Surprising Shoal of Pumice-Stones found floating

on the Sea

165

viji. Shower of Fishes

166

ix. On the Nature of Snow

ib.

1. Configuration of its Crystals

ib.

2. Mode of its Formation

170

3. Snow of a Red Colour

172

1. Descent of Red Snow at Genoa

ib.

2.

in the Alps

173

xi. Avalanches, or falling Masses of detached and in.

cumbent Snow.heaps, from the Summits of lofty

Mountains

175

xii. General Nature of Hail

181

xiii. Violent Hail-Storms, accompanied with Stones of

unusual size

182

XL. On Winds, or Atmospherical Currents

185

Sect. i. General Remarks on the Nature and Origin of Winds,

Trade. Winds, Monsoons, Partial Winds, and Hur.

ricanes

ib.

ii. Methodical Arrangement, Intensity, and Velocity

of Winds

205

iii. Perennial, or Trade. Winds

207

iv. Periodical Winds

211

1. Tropical Sea. Winds, or Monsoons

ib.

2. Etesian Wind

217

3. Tropical Land Wind

219

4. Khumseen

222

5. Sirocco

223

6. Long-Shore Wind

224

7, Land and Sea Breezes

225

8. Harmattan

226

v. Topical or Toral Winds

232

1. Samiel, or Samyel

ib.

2. Simoom

233

3. Mistral, or Circius, and Autun

234

vi. Occasional Winds; as Hurricanes, Tempests, Tor.

nados, and Whirlwinds

235

1. Hurricanes of the West Indies

ib.

2. Hurricanes of the Indian Coast

238

3. Hurricane in Huntingdonshire, Sept. 8, 1741

,

244

4. Tempest at Wigton, Cumberland

246

5. General Remarks on Tornados, or Whirlwinds 248

6. Dreadful Whirlwind at Cambridge, New England 249

7. Whirlwind at Corne Abbas, Dorsetshire

251

8. Account of two considerable Hurricanes in

Northamptonshire

252

9. Fiery Whirlwind in Norfolk

253

10. Whirlwinds of Sand

ib.

XLI. On the Prester, or Water-Spout

256

Sect. i. General Remarks

ii. Genuine Presters, or Water-Spouts

262

1. Observed in the Mediterranean

ib.

2. In the Moors of Lancashire

265

3. Near the Lipari Islands

266

iii. Mimic Water Spouts

267

1. At Hatfield, Yorkshire

ib.

2. Another at same place

268

3. In Lincolnshire

269

XLII. General Nature and Properties of the Electric

Fluid

270

Sect. i. Its relation to common Matter

ib.

ii. Communication and Velocity of Electricity

275

iii. Atinospherical Electricity

297

XLIII. Electricity of Thunder and Lightning

300

Sect. i. General History of this Interesting Discovery ib.

ii. Invention and Curious Properties of the Electrical

Kite

305

iii. Means of preventing Mischief from Lightning 308

ir. Thunder-Storms remarkable for their Violence or

Effects

312

v. Death of Professor Richman by Lightning

353

XLIV. On Magnetism

362

Sect. i. General Remarks on the Theory of Magnetism ib.

ii. On the Cause of the Change in the Magnetic Needle 377

iii. Magnetic Experiments

387

XLV. Aurora Borealis and Australis

393

Sect. i. General History and Remarks

ib.

ii. Surprising Lights in the Air, March 6, 1716 400

iii. Lumen Boreale, or Streaming

414

iv. Remarkable Red Lights seen in various places in

the Air, Dec. 16, 1737

416

V. Account of Luminous Arches

421

XLVI. Blazing Balls and Burning Stones

425

Sect, i. General Remarks

ib.

ii. Various Extraordinary Meteors, or Lights, in the

Sky

427

iü. Blazing Meteor seen all over England, March 19,

1719

432

iv. Meteor of a Flaming Sword seen in Yorkshire, and

elsewhere

441

v. Luminous Meteor at Peckham

442

vi. Various Fiery Meteors, with Observations

ib,

Chap.

Page

Sect. vii. Various Fiery Meteors, with Balls that have de.

scended to the Earth

457

viii. Observations on Fire-Balls

460

ix. Aërolites, or Meteoric Stones

468

1. General History and Observations

ib.

2. Lunar, or Selenitic Origin of Meteoric Stones 475

x. Falling or Shooting Stars

492

XLVII. On Luminous and Burning Exhalations under

the Names of Ignes Fatui; Will-o'-the-

Wisps; Jack - o' - Lanthorns; Mariner's

Lights; and St. Helmo's Fires

494

Sect. i. General Remarks

ib.

ii. Of the Ignis Fatuus, as observed in England 498

iii. Luminous and Inflammable Exhalations on the

Snows of the Appennines

501

iv. Fiery Exhalations or Damp, that set on Fire various

Hay Ricks in Pembrokeshire

502

XLVIII. On Atmospheric Deceptions, Fata Morgana,

Mirages, Glamer or Looming, Halos, Mul-

tiplied Rainbows; Parhelions and Parasele-

nites, or Mock-Suns, and Mock-Moons;

Glories; Refraction of Iceland Crystal 504

Sect. i. Explanation of the principle of Atmospheric Decep-
tions

ib.

ii. Fata Morgana; or Optical Appearances of Figures

in the Sea and Air, in the Faro of Messina 509

iii. Singular Instance of Atmospherical Refraction, by

which the Coast of Picardy was brought apparently

close to that of llastings

514

iv. On Refractions and Louble Refractions in the Atmo.

sphere

516

v. Farhelia, or Mock.Suns

seen at Dantzic

521

vi. Pyramidal Appearance in the Heaveng, observed in

522

vii. Parhelia at Sudbury, Suffolk

523

viii. Two Mock-Suns and an Arc of a Rainbow in.

verted

524

ix. Beautiful Irridescent Arches in a Mist

526

x. Peculiar Solar and Lunar Irises in South America 528

xi, Lunar Rainbow in Derbyshire

529

xii. Description of a Glory on Mount Realt, near the

Vale of Clwyd

530

XLIX. Of Sounds and Echoes

593

Secr. i. General Observations on the Nature of Sound, ,

Whispering Domes, and Echoes

ib.

ii. Extraordinary Whispering Places and Echoes 546

iii. Singular Sympathetic Action of Two Pendulum

Clocks on each other

547

Essex

THE

GALLERY

OF

NATURE AND ART

PART I.

N A T U R E.

BOOK II.
GEOLOGY.

[CONTINUED.]

CHAP. XXXIV.

ATMOSPHERICAL DEPARTMENT.

We now advance to the atmospherical phænomena of the science of Geology, in the extensive sense in which we have em. ployed this term; and shall proceed to a brief survey of whatever is most curious or worthy of observation in the composition of the Atmosphere; the variation of Climate; the extremes of Heat and Cold; the existence of Electricity and electric Powers, as Thunder and Lightning, Aurora Borealis, Water-spouts ; Falling-stars, and Ignes Fatui ; Echoes, Wind, Hurricanes, and Storms; the origin of Mist, Dew, Sleet, Snow, Mirages, or Fata Morgana, Meteoric, Stones, and various other appearances connected with or depen. dent apon the preceding; and which collectively constitute the Science of Meteorology.

VOL. IV.

CHAP. XXXV.

GENERAL NATURE OP the ATMOSPHERÉ.

THE atmosphere is that invisible elastic Auid which surrounds the earth to an unknown height, and incloses it on all sides. It was thus denominated by the Greeks in consequence of the vavours which are continually mixing with it, or combined in it *. Iu contemplating the nature of the atmosphere there are two points of considerable importance to be attended to, respecting which therefore we shall offer a summary of the best established facts and opinions of the present day; and these are the materials that enter into its composition, and the changes to which it is liable.

SECTION I.

Composition of the Atmosphere. Neither the properties nor the composition of the atmosphere seems to have occupied much of the attention of the ancients. Aristotle considered it as one of the four elements, situated be. tween the regions of water and fire, and mingled with two exhalations, the dry and moist; the first of which occasioned thunder, lightning, and wind; while the second produced rain, snow, and hail. The ancients, in general, seem to have considered the blue colours of the sky as essential to the atmosphere; and several of their philosophers believed that it was the constituent principle of other bodies, or at least that air and other bodies are mutually conyertible into each other. Thus Lucretius :

Semper enim quodcunque fuit de rebus, id omno
Aeris in magnum fertur mare: qui nisi contra
Corpora retribuat rebus, recreetque fluenteis,
Omnia jam resoluta furent, et in acra versa.
Haud igitur cessat gigni de rebus et in res
Recidere assidue, quoniam fluere omnia constat. Lib. y. 274.

# From årrus, a vapour, and paipa, a sphere,

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