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branching plant the winter through, blossoming about January, and is very ornamental in shady walks and shrubberies. The good women give the leaves powdered to children troubled with worms; but it is a violent remedy, and ought to be administered with caution.

Green Hellebore (Helleborus viridis), in the deep stony lane on the left hand just before the turning to Norton farm, and at the top of Middle Dorton under the hedge; this plant dies down to the ground early in autumn, and springs again about February, flowering almost as soon as it appears above ground.

Creeping Bilberry, or Cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccos), in the bogs of Bin's-pond.

Whortle, or Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), on the dry hillocks of Wolmer Forest.

Round-leaved Sundew (Drosera rotundiflora), and long-leaved Sundew (Drosera longifolia), in the bogs of Bin's-pond.

Purple Comarum (Comarum palustre), or Marsh Cinquefoil, in the bogs of Bin's-pond.

Tustan, or St. John's Wort (Hypericum androsæmum), in the stony, hollow lanes.

Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor), in Selborne-hanger and Shrubwood.

Yellow Monotropa (Monotroța hypopithys), or Bird's nest, in Selbornehanger under the shady beeches, to whose roots it seems to be parasitical, at the north-west end of the Hanger.

Perfoliated Yellow-wort (Chlora perfoliata, Blackstonia perfoliata, Hudsonii), on the banks in the King's-field.

Herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia), True-love, or One-berry, in the Church-litten-coppice.

Opposite Golden Saxifrage (Chrysosplenium oppositi folium), in the dark and rocky hollow lanes.

Autumnal Gentian (Gentiana amarella), or Fellwort, on the Zig-zag and Hanger.

Tooth-wort (Lathræn squammaria), in the Church-litten-coppice under some hazels near the foot-bridge, in Trimming's garden hedge, and on the dry wall opposite Grange-yard.

Small Teasel (Dipsacus pilosus), in the Short and Long Lithe.

Narrow-leaved, or Wild Lathyrus (Lathyrus sylvestris), in the bushes at the foot of the Short Lithe, near the path.

Ladies' Traces (Ophrys spiralis), in the Long Lithe, and towards the south corner of the common. Birds' Nest Ophrys (Ophrys nidus avis), in the Long Lithe, under

the shady beeches among the dead leaves; in Great Dorton among the bushes, and on the Hanger plentifully.

Helleborine (Serapias latifolia), in the High-wood under the shady beeches.

Spurge Laurel (Daphne laureola), in Selborne-hanger and the Highwood.

The Mezereon (Daphne Mezereum), in Selborne-hanger, among the shrubs at the south-east end above the cottages.

Truffles (Lycoperdon tuber), in the Hanger and the High-wood.

Dwarf Elder, Walwortor Danewort (Sambucus ebulus), among the rubbish and ruined foundations of the Priory.

Of all the propensities of plants none seem more strange than their different periods of blossoming. Some produce their flowers in the winter, or very first dawnings of spring; many when the spring is established; some at midsummer, and some not till autumn. When we see the Helleborus fætidus and Helleborus niger blowing at Christmas, the Helleborus hyemalis in January, and the Helleborus viridis as soon as ever it emerges out of the ground, we do not wonder, because they are kindred plants that we expect should keep pace the one with the other. But other congenerous vegetables differ so widely in their time of flowering, that we cannot but admire. I shall only instance at present in the Crocus sativus, the vernal and the autumnal crocus, which have such an affinity, that the best botanists only make them varieties of the same genus, of which there is only one species; not being able to discern any difference in the corolla, or in the internal structure. Yet the vernal crocus expands its flowers by the beginning of March at farthest, and often even in

very rigorous weather; they cannot be retarded but by some violence offered :—while the autumnal (the Saffron) defies the influence of the spring and summer, and will not blow till most plants begin to fade and run to seed. This circumstance is one of the wonders of the creation, little noticed because a common occurrence: yet it ought not to be overlooked because it is familiar, since it would be as difficult to be explained as the most stupendous phenomenon in nature.

“Say, what impels, amidst surrounding snow
Congealed, the crocus' flamy bud to glow ?
Say, what retards, amidst the summer's blaze,
Th' autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days ?
The God of SEASONS ; whose pervading power
Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower:
He bids each flower His quick’ning word obey;

Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay.”
SELBORNE, July 3, 1778.

LETTER LXXXIV.

TO THE HONOURABLE DAINES BARRINGTON.

"Omnibus animalibus reliquis certus et uniusmodi, et in suo cuique genere incessus est : aves solæ vario meatu feruntur, et in terrâ, et in aëre.”- Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. x. cap. 38.

“All animals have a certain definite and peculiar gait; birds alone move in a varied manner both on the ground and in the air.”

A GOOD ornithologist should be able to distinguish birds by their air as well as by their colours

and shape; on the ground as well as on the wing, and in the bush as well as in the hand. For, though it must not be said that every species of birds has a manner peculiar to itself, yet there is somewhat in most genera at least that at first sight discriminates them, and enables a judicious observer to pronounce upon them with some certainty. Put a bird in motion“ and it is truly betrayed by its gait.”

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Thus kites and buzzards sail round in circles with wings expanded and motionless; and it is from their gliding manner that the former are still called in the north of England and Scotland “gleds," from the Saxon verb glidan, to glide. The kestrel, or windhover, has a peculiar mode of hanging in the air in one place, his wings all the while being briskly agitated. Hen-harriers fly low over heaths or fields of corn, and beat the ground regularly like a pointer or setting-dog. Owls move in a buoyant manner, as if lighter than the air ; they seem to want ballast. There is a peculiarity belonging to ravens that must draw the attention even of the most incurious—they spend all their leisure time in striking and cuffing each other on the wing in a kind of playful skirmish ; and, when they move from one place to another, frequently turn on their backs with a loud croak, and seem to be falling to the ground. When this odd gesture betides them, they are scratching themselves with one foot, and thus lose the centre of gravity. Rooks sometimes dive and tumble in a frolicsome manner; crows and daws swag. ger in their walk; woodpeckers fly volatu undoso, opening and closing their wings at every stroke, and so are always rising or falling in curves. All of this genus use their tails, which incline downward, as a support while they run up trees. Parrots, like all other hooked-clawed birds, walk awkwardly, and make use of their bill as a third foot, climbing and descending with

A jackdaw. ridiculous caution. All the gallina parade and walk gracefully, and run nimbly ; but fly with difficulty, with an impetuous whirring, and in a straight line. Magpies and jays flutter with powerless wings, and make no despatch ; herons seem encumbered with too much sail for their light bodies ; but these vast hollow wings are necessary in carrying burdens, such as large fishes, and the like; pigeons, and particularly the sort called smiters, have a way of clashing their wings, the one against the other, over their backs with a loud snap; another variety called tumblers, turn them

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