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5. Place your King's Bishop on your Queen's Rook's sixth square.

K. B. to Q. R. 6th.

6. Place your Queen on the King's Knight's fourth square.

Q. to K. Kt. 4th. . We will now finish our first lesson. Although you do not yet know the moves of the pieces, yet you are quite competent to perform the exercises given above.



You must now learn the moves of the pieces and Pawns; for which purpose, place your board in the proper position, which, you know, is with a white square at your right hand corner, and then place the King's Rook on its square, the rest of the board being unoccupied. The move of the Rook is always in straight lines, parallel with the sides of the board. In its present position this piece can be played to your adversary's King's Rook's square, which square, you know, is the same as your K. R. 8th, or it may be played to your Q. R. square, from thence to Q. R. 8th square, thence to K. R. 8th, and so home again, thus taking four moves to go along all four sides of the board. The Rook may also take a short as well as a long move. Its shortest move is one square forward or backward, or one square to the right, or one square to the left. In its present position it can neither move backward nor to the right, because it is at home; and so also the Queen's Rook, when at home, can neither move backward nor to the left; but place either Rook on any but a Rook's file, and you will find that it can move in three different directions: place K. R. on K. square and you will find that it commands four squares to the left, three squares to the right, and all the seven squares in the King's file. Still in this position the Rook cannot move backward. But place K. R. on Q. 4th square, and you will find that it can now move backward, but although it can move in four different directions, it does not command a larger number of squares than before. Remember that a piece is said to command a certain number of squares, only when they are unoccupied. If, for example, your King's Rook's Pawn be at K. R. 2d square, the Rook has no po.ver whatever in a forward direction, but only to the left, where it commands seven squares; but if we place the K. Kt. at its square, the K. R. has no power whatever to move, and commands nothing. Remember also that a piece does not command or defend the square on which it actually stands, but only those squares to which it can be moved. Your board being again unoccupied, place the King's Bishop and the Queen's Bishop on their respective squares. The move of the Bishop is always diagonal or oblique. Your King's Bishop being on a white square, must always remain on that colour, because it cannot by any oblique move pass to a black square. The Queen's Bishop is on a black square, and remains on that colour during the whole of the game. Play your K. B. to K. R. 3d, thence to your Q. B. 8th, thence to your Q. R. 6th, and thence home again. So also play your Q. B. to Q. R. 3d, thence to your adversary's K. B., thence to your K. R. 6th, and thence home again. Play your K. B. to K. Kt. 2d, thence to K. R. square, thence to your adversary's Q. R. square. This last move is the longest stride the Bishop can take. Perform a similar exercise with your Q. B.

When the two Bishops are at home, they each command Beven squares. But play K. B. to Q. B. 4th square, or Q. R. to K. B. 4th square, and you will find their power to be greatly increased, each Bishop commanding eleven squares The Bishop has the same privilege as the Rook of moving through many squares or few, or of moving only one square.

Now as we are strongly inclined to the opinion that the moves of the pieces at Chess originated from two ancient games, in one of which the men were played as we now play the Rook, and in the other the moves were similar to those of our Bishop, and that by a combination of the powers of these two pieces, the moves of the other pieces derive their origin, we have thought that a better understanding of the moves in the modern game might be had by first describing the powers of the Rook and Bishop, and then tracing to the; n the moves of the other pieces.

The King is allowed the shortest move of the Rook and the shortest move of the Bishop, but not both at once. Place your King on his square; he can then move to any one of the following squares : K. B. square, Q. square, K. 2d square, Q. 2d square, K. B. 2d square. But if we place the King on one of the central squares his power to move is increased. Place your K. on his 4th square; he then commands K. 3d and 5th squares, Q. 3d, 4th, and 5th squares, and K. B. 3d, 4th, and 5th squares. Remember that your King can never be on a square immediately adjoining that on which your adversary's King stands.

The Queen is allowed the move either of the Rook or of the Bishop, but not both at once. Place the Queen on her square; she can move four squares to the right, three squares to the left; she commands seven squares of the Queen's file, a diagonal to the left of three white squares, and a diagonal to the right of four white squares. You can therefore already form an idea of the great value of this, the most powerful piece at Chess.

The Knight is the most remarkable of all the pieces; ii U the only one that has the privilege of moving over the othe» pieces, and this it often does, under the guidance of a good player, in a remarkable manner, threading its way safely through its own and the enemy's ranks, until it can form an attack on some distinguished piece, or mar an ingenious plot of the adversary. This piece is not only difficult to play well, but difficult also to resist, so that it is a deserved favorite among skilful players. The move of the Knight consists of the shortest Rook's move, and the shortest Bishop's move, both at once. For example, place your K. Kt. at home; he can move to K. R. 3d square, i. e., from K. Kt. square to K. Kt. 2d, the shortest Rook's move, and from K. Kt. 2d to K. R. 3d, the shortest Bishop's move, or from K. Kt. square to K. R. 2d, the shortest Bishop's move, and from thence to K. R. 3d, the shortest Rook's move. Wherever we can combine the shortest move of the Rook with the shortest move of the Bishop, the Knight can be played, provided the square to which you wish to play him be not occupied by one of your own pieces or Pawns. But if such square be occupied by a piece or Pawn of your adversary, the Knight can capture it. When your K. Kt. is at home, he can be played to your K. 2d square, or to K. B. 3d square, or to K. R. 3d square; I at when the Knight gets to the middle of the board, his power is wonderfully increased. Place him on your K. 4th square, for example, and you will find that he can be played to any one of eight squares. See if you can find out these squares, and write down their names correctly.

Mr. Geo. Walker, in his excellent elementary work, "Chess Made Easy," states, with regard to the move of the Knight, that it is so difficult of explanation that he almost despairs of making a learner understand it until he has met with it practically illustrated. He gives the annexed diagram, and the following mode of description :—

The Knight may be said to begin his move by going one square straight forward, and then finishing his move by pro. ceeding one square diagonally; or, it may equally be said that he begins his move by moving one square diagonally, and ends his move by marching one square forward or sidewise. The move of the Queen, Rook, and Bishop, are intermin


able in their range, except by the extremities of the board ., but the moves of the King and Knight are, on the contrary, terminable, and not to be extended at discretion, like those of the other pieces.

Now set out your two white Knights as in the foiegoing diagram, and try to reconcile my description of the move of the Knight, with the squares indicated as being commanded by them. The Knight in the corner commands two squares, marked 1 and 2; and, had he the move, could play to either of these, but to no others on the whole board. In doing this, he crosses one intermediate square, and seats himself at an interval of three squares, inclusive, from his starting point, oo

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