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ance to this blind father, since you mean to be a companion of my flight. Ant. Go then into miserable banishment! O my ancient father, stretch out your dear hand ! I will accompany you, like a favourable wind to a ship. Oed. Behold, I go! Daughter, be you my unfortunate guide! Ant. Thus, am I, am I, the most unhappy of all the Theban virgins ! Oed. Where shall I fix my old feeble foot ? Daughter, reach to me my staff. Ant. Here, go here, after me. Place your foot here, my father, you that have the strength only of a dream. Oed. O most unhappy banishment! Creon drives me in my old

age from my country. Alas! alas ! wretched, wretched things have I suffered," &c.

So sudden were the changes or the refinements of our language, that in the second edition of this play, printed again with Gascoigne's poems in 1587*, it was thought necessary to affix marginal explanations of many words, not long before in common use, but now become obsolete and unintelligible. Among others, are behest and quell". This, however, as our author says, was done at the request of a lady, who did not understand poetical words or termess.

Seneca's ten Tragedies were translated at different times and by dif. ferent poets. These were all printed together in 1581, under this title, “SENECA HIS TENNE TRAGEDIES, TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH. Mercurii Nutrices horæ. IMPRINTED AT LONDON IN FLEETSTREETE neare vnto saincte Dunstons church by Thomas Marshe, 1581." The book is dedicated, from Butley in Cheshire, to sir Thomas Heneage, treasurer of the queen's chamber. I shall speak of each man's translation distinctly"

The HYPPOLITUS, MEDEA, HERCULES OETEUS, and AGAMEMNON, were translated by John Studley, educated at Westininster school, and afterwards a scholar of Trinity college in Cambridge. The HYPPOLI. Tus, which he calls the fourth and most ruthfull tragedy, the Medeat,


9 Phæniss. v. 1677 seq. p. 170. edit. Barnes.

* [In Sir John Davis's Epigrams, which appeared about ten years later, a new-fangled youth who gives into every fashionable foolery of the time, is made to close the catalogue of his absurdities by giving praise to “Old George Gascoine's rimes,Epig. 22.-PARK.]

command, kill. By the way, this is done throughout this edition of Gascoigne's Poems. So we have Nill, will not, &c.

Pag. 128. Among others, words not of the obsolete kind are explained, such as Monarchie, Diademe, &c. Gascoigne is celebrated by Gabriel Harvey, as one of the English poets who have written in praise of women. Gratulat. Validens. edit. Binneman, 1578. 4to. Lib. iv. p. 22.


clytus adsit, GASCOIGNOQUE aliquis sit, mea Corda,

locus. Coloph."IMPRINTED AT LONDON IN FLEETSTREETE Near unto Sainct Dunston's church by Thomas Marshę, 1581." Containing 217 leaves.

u I know not the purport of a book licensed to E. Matts, “ Discourses on Seneca the tragedian,” Jun. 22, 1601. Registr. Station. C. fol. 71 b.

+ [The following lines which close the fourth chorus in Medea, seem worthy of notice for their poetical expression. Now Phæbus, lodge thy charyot in the

west, Let neyther raynes nor brydle stay thy

race :

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in which are some alterations of the chorus w, and the HERCULES Oeteus, were all first printed in Thomas Newton's collection of 1581, just mentioned*. The AGAMEMNON was first and separately published in 1566, and entitled, “ The eyght Tragedie of Seneca entituled AGAMEMNON, translated out of Latin into English by John Studley student in Trinitie college in Cambridge. Imprinted at London in Flete streete beneath the Conduit at the signe of S. John Euangelyst by Thomas Colwell A.D.M.D.LXVI'.” This little book is exceedingly scarce, and hardly to be found in the choicest libraries of those who collect our poetry in black letter”. Recommendatory verses are prefixed, in praise of our translator's performance. It is dedicated to secretary Cecil*. To the end of the fifth act our translator has added a whole scene, for the purpose of relating the death of Cassandra, the imprisonment of Electra, and the flight of Orestes. Yet these circumstances were all known and told before. The narrator is Eurybates, who in the commencement of the third act had informed Clytemnestra of Agamemnon's return. These efforts, however imperfect or improper, to improve the plot of a drama by a new conduct or contrivance, deserve particular notice at this infancy of our theatrical taste and knowledge. They show that authors now began to think for themselves, and that they were not always implicitly enslaved to the prescribed letter of their models. Studley, who appears to have been qualified for better studies, misapplied his time and talents in translating Bale's Acts of the Popes. That translation, dedicated to Thomas lord Essex, was printed in 1574b. He has left twenty Latin distichs on the death of the learned Nicholas Carr, Cheke's successor in the Greek professorship at Cambridge“. Let groveling light with dulceat nyghte 2 Entered in 1565-6. Registr. Station. opprest,

A. fol. 136 b. In cloking cloudes wrap up his muffled * [In this dedication Studley says, he

was sometyme scholler in the Queenes Let Hesperus, the loadesman of the Majesties grammer schoole at Westminnyghte,

ster.” · Wood speaks of him as “a noted In western floode drench deepe the day poet" in his day; and probably inferred so bryght.-PARK.]

this from the metrical compliments of conSee Newt. edit. fol. 121 a.

temporaries prefixed to the early edition

of his Agamemnon. Chetwood, whose * But I must except the Medea, which is entered as translated by John Studley of

authority is at all times very doubtful, tells

us he was killed in Flanders in 1587. See Trinity-college in Cambridge, in 1565-6,

Brit. Bibl. ii. 373.—PARK.] with T. Colwell. Registr. Station, A. fol. 140 b. I have never seen this separate

• In quarto, bl. lett. “The Pageaunt of

Popes, &c. &c. Englished with sundrye edition. Also the Hippolitus is entered to Jones and Charlewood, in 1579. Re

additions, by J. S.” For Thomas Marshe,

1574. gistr. B. In 1566–7, I find an entry to

At the end of Bartholomew DodingHenry Denham, which I do not well understand, "for printing the fourth part of

ton's Epistle of Carr's Life and Death, ad

dressed to sir Walter Mildmay, and subSeneca's workes." Registr. A. fol. 152 b.

joined to Carr's Latin Translation of seven Hippolitus is the fourth Tragedy.

Orations of Demosthenes. Lond. 1571. 4to. [Qu. whether he had not a greater share of the whole ?-HERBERT.]

Dodington, a fellow of Trinity college, suc

ceeded Carr in the Greek chair, 1560. See y Bl. lett. 12mo. [In the Bodleian

Camden's Monum. Eccles. Coll. Westmon. Jibrary, marked 8°. 4. 44. Art. Seld.

edit. 1600. 4to. Signat. K. 2. Park.]

face ;


The Octavia is translated by T. N. or Thomas Nuce, or Newce, a fellow of Pembroke-hall in 1562, afterwards rector of Oxburgh in Norfolk, Beccles, Weston-Market, and vicar of Gaysley in Suffolk d; and at length prebendary of Ely cathedral in 1586. This version is for the most part executed in the heroic rhyming couplet. All the rest of the translators have used, except in the chorus, the Alexandrine measure, in which Sternhold and Hopkins rendered the Psalms, perhaps the most unsuitable species of English versification that could have been applied to this purpose. Nuce's OCTAVIA was first printed in 1566. He has two very long copies of verses, one in English and the other in Latin, prefixed to the first edition of Studley's AGAMEMNON in 1566, just mentioned.

Alexander Nevyle translated, or rather paraphrased, the OEDIPUS, in the sixteenth year of his age, and in the year 1560, not printed til! the year 15818. It is dedicated to doctor Wootton, a privy counsellor, and his godfather. Notwithstanding the translator's youth, it is by far the most spirited and elegant version in the whole collection, and it is to be regretted that he did not undertake all the rest. He seems to have been persuaded by his friends, who were of the graver sort, that poetry was only one of the lighter accomplishments of a young man, and that it should soon give way to the more weighty pursuits of literature. The first act of his OEDIPUS begins with these lines, spoken by Oedipus. The night is gon, and dreadfull day begins at length t'appeere, And Phoebus, all bedimde with clowdes, himselfe aloft doth reere: And gliding forth with deadly hue, a dolefull blase in skies Doth beare: great terror and dismay to the beholders eyes ! Now shall the houses voyde be seene, with Playgue deuoured quight, And slaughter which the night hath made, shall day bring forth to

light. Doth

any man in princely throne reioyce? O brittle ioy ! How

many ills, how fayre a face, and yet how much annoy, In thee doth and hidden lies ! What heapes of endles strife! They iudge amisse, that deeme the Prince to haue the happie life.h

Nevyl was born in Kent, in 1544), and occurs taking a master's degree at Cambridge, with Robert earl of Essex, on the sixth day of July, 1581k. He was one of the learned men whom archbishop Parker retained in his family'; and at the time of the archbishop's death, in 1575,

Where he died in 1617, and is buried with an epitaph in English rhyme. See Bentham's

ly, p. 251. e Feb. 21.

f For in that year, there is a receipt for license to Henry Denham to print it. Registr. Station. A. fol. 148 b.

8 But in 1563, is a receipt for Tho.

mas Colwell's license to print

a boke entituled the Lamentable History of the prynce Oedypus.” Registr. Station. A. fol. 89 a.

h Fol. 78 a.
i Lambarde, Peramb. Kent, p. 72.
k MS. Catal. Grad. Univ. Cant.

Strype's Grindal, p. 196.

was his secretarym. He wrote a Latin narrative of the Norfolk insurrection under Kett, which is dedicated to archbishop Parker, and was printed in 1575". To this he added a Latin account of Norwich, printed the same year, called Norvicus, the plates of which were executed by Lype and Hogenberg, archbishop Parker's domestic engravers, in 1574o. He published the Cambridge verses on the death of sir Philip Sydney, which he dedicated to lord Leicester, in 1587P. He projected, but I suspect never completed, an English translation of Livy, in 15774. He died in 1614r.

The HERCULES FURENS, Thyestes, and TROAS, were translated into English by Jasper Heywood*. The HERCULES FURENS was first printed at London in 1561", and dedicated to William Herbert lord Pembroke, with the following pedantic Latin title:-“Lucii Annaei Senecae tragoedia prima, quæ inscribitur HERCULES Furens, nuper recognita, et ab omnibus mendis quibus scatebat sedulo purgata, et in studiosae juventutis utilitatem in Anglicum tanta fide conversa, ut carmen pro carmine, quoad Anglica lingua patiatur, pene redditum videas, per Jasperum Heywodum Oxoniensem.” The THYESTES, said to be faithfully Englished by Iasper Heywood felow of Alsolne colledge in Oxenforde, was also first separately printed by Berthelette at London in 1560+. He has added a scene to the fourth act, a soliloquy by Thyestes, who bewails his own misfortunes, and implores vengeance on Atreus. In this scene, the speaker's application of all the torments of hell to Atreus's unparalleled guilt of feasting on the bowels of his children, furnishes a sort of nauseous bombast, which not only violates the laws of criticism, but provokes the abhorrence of our common sensibilities. A few of the first lines are tolerable. O kyng of Dytis dungeon darke, and grysly ghost of hell, That in the deepe and dreadfull denne of blackest Tartare dwell, Where leane and pale Diseases lye, where Feare and Famyne are, Where Discord standes with bleeding browes, where euery kinde of care; Whose verse also is full as good,

m Strype, Life of Parker, p. 497. He is styled Armiger. See also the Dedication to his Kettus.

" Lond. 4to. The title is, “ Kettus, sive de furoribus Norfolciensium Ketto duce." Again at London, 1582, by Henry Binneman, 8vo.

And in English, 1615, and 1623. The disturbance was occasioned by an inclosure in 1549, and began at an annual play, or spectacle, at Wymondham, which lasted two days and two nights, according to ancient custom, p. 6. edit. 1582. He cites part of a ballad sung by the rebels, which had a most powerful effect in spreading the commotion, p. 88. Prefixed is a copy of Latin verses on the death of his patron archbishop Parker; and a recommendatory Latin copy by Thomas Drant, the first translator of Horace. See also Strype's Parker, p. 499. Nevile has another Latin work, Apologia ad Walliæ Proceres, Lond. for Binneman, 1576. 4to. He is mentioned in that part of G. Gascoigne's poems called Devises. His name, and the date 1565, are inscribed on the Cartularium S. Gregorii Cantuariæ, among bishop More's books, with two Latin lines which I hope he did not intend for hexameters.

It is sometimes accompanied with an engraved map of the Saxon and British kings. See Hollinsh. Chron. i. 139.

p Lond. 4to. viz. “ Academiæ Cantabrigiensis Lacrymæ tumulo D. Philippi Sidneji sacratæ.”

9 See Note in the Register of the Stationers' Company, dated May 3, 1577. Registr. B. fol. 139 b. It was not finished in 1597.

[Nevyle has five pages of verses in commendation of the author before Googe's Eclog. &c. 1563.-PARK.]

* Octob. 4. Batteley's Canterb. App. 7. where see his Epitaph. He is buried in a chapel in Canterbury cathedral with his brother Thomas, dean of that church.' The publication of Seneca's Oedipus in English by Studley, or rather Gascoigne's

Jocasta, produced a metrical tale of Eteocles and Polynices, in “The Forrest of Fancy, wherein is contained very pretty Apothegmes, and pleasant Histories, both in meeter and prose, Songes, Sonets, Epigrams, and Epistles, &c. Imprinted at London by Thomas Purfoote, &c. 1579.” 4to. See Signat. B. ij. Perhaps Henry Chettle, or Henry Constable, is the writer or compiler. (See supr. p. 243.] At least the colophon is, “ Finis, H. C.” By the way, it appears that Chettle was the publisher of Greene's Groatsworth of Wit in 1592. It is entered to W. Wrighte, Sept. 20. Registr. Station. B. fol. 292 be

[Mr. Warton's copy of “The Forrest of Fancy" came into the possession of my respected friend James Bindley, Esq., who favoured me with the perusal, and from its great difference in style to the received productions of Constable, I should hesitate to assign the work to him; nor does it much resemble the compositions of Chettle; such, at least, as I have inspected, viz. “ Kind Harts Dreame,” 1592, and “England's Mourning Garment," on the death of Queen Elizabeth. -PARK.]

[To Heywood, Neville, and other contemporary translators, the following tribuţe was offered by T. B. in verses to the Reader before Studley's version of the Agamemnon, 1566, When Heiwood did in perfect verse And dolfull tune set out, And by hys smouth and fytest style Declared had aboute, What toughe reproche the Troyans of The hardy Greekes receyved, Whey they of towne, of goods, and lyves, Togyther were depryved, &c. May Heywood thus alone get prayse, And Phaer be cleare forgott, Whose verse and style doth far surmount, And gotten hath the lot? So may not Googe have part with hym, Whose travayle and whose payne,

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“ lyues with Joue, another Ganymede." Or better of the twaine?

But he is happy that the father survives, A Nevyle also one there is

who seems to be sir John Mason. Among In verse that gives no place

the old Roman poets he mentions PaTo Heiwood, though he be full good, lingenius. After Seneca has delivered In using of his pace.

him the Thyestes to translate, he feels an Nor Goldinge can have lesse renowne, unusual agitation, and implores Megæra Which Ovid dyd translate ;

to inspire him with tragic rage. And by the thondryng of hys verse

“O thou Megaera, then I sayd, Hath set in chayre of state;

If might of thyne it bee A great sorte more I reckon myght

(Wherewith thou Tantall drouste from With Heixood to compare,

hell) And this our Author (Pund) one of them

That thus dysturbeth mee, To compte I will not spare;

Enspyre my pen!"Whose paynes is egall with the rest

This sayde, I felt the Furies force In thys he hath begun,

Enflame me more and more : And lesser prayse deserveth not

And ten tymes more now chafte I was Then Heiwood's worke hath done

Than euer yet before. Give therefore Studley part of prayse,

My haire stoode vp, I waxed wood", To recompense hys payne;

My synewes all dyd shake: For egall labour evermore

And, as the Furye had me vext, Deserveth egall gayne.-PARK.]

My teethe began to quake. $ In 12mo.

And thus enflamede, &c. t In 12mo. It is dedicated in verse to

He then enters on his translation. Nosir John Mason. Then follows in verse

thing is here wanting but a better stanza. also, “ The translatour to the booke." From the metrical Preface which next [Mr. Warton has omitted to notice follows, I have cited many stanzas. See that a fourth scene to the fifth act is addsupr. p. 227. This is a Vision of the poet ed by the Translator. It consists of a Seneca, containing 27 pages. In the monologue or soliloquy assigned to Thycourse of this Preface, he laments a pro- estes, who invokes all the infernal tribes mising youth just dead, whom he means of Tartarus to become his conjoined asso. to compliment by saying, that he now ciates.--Park.]

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