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than that of Antony Wood, who supposes GorboDuC to have been in old English rhyme, that the three first acts were written by Thomas Norton, and the two last by Sackville *. But the force of internal evidence often prevails over the authority of assertion, a testimony which is diminished by time, and may be rendered suspicious from a variety of other circumstances. Throughout the whole piece, there is an invariable uniformity of diction and versification. Sackville has two poems of considerable length in the MIRROUR FOR MAGISTRATES, which fortunately furnish us with the means of comparison : and every scene of GORBODUC is visibly marked with his characteristical mannert, which consists in a perspicuity of style, and a command of numbers, superior to the tone of his times'. Thomas Norton's poetry is of a very different and a subordinate cast: and if we may judge from his share in our metrical psalmody, he seems to have been much more properly qualified to shine in the miserable mediocrity of Sternhold's

Flattery prevailes, and sage rede 1 hath

no place. These are the plages, when murder is the

meane

To make new heires unto the royall

crowne.

* [Could we suppose, that Norton wrote the first three acts of Gorboduc, it would infinitely diminish Sackville's merit, because the design and example must be given to the former. Norton might write dully, as we find most poets do, on sacred subjects; and with inore spirit when left to his own invention. Shakspeare himself wrote but dully, in his historic poem of Tarquin and Lucrece. Yet it is difficult to conceive how Sackville and Norton, whose general poetic talents were so widely different, could write distinct parts of a play, the whole of which should appear of uniform merit; like the famous statue made by two sculptors in different countries, which so greatly excited the wonder of Pliny.-Ashby.]

+ [The reflections of Eubulus at the close of the drama on the miseries of civil war, are so patriotically interesting, that I am impelled to take the occasion of placing an extract from them in the margin. And thou, O Brittaine! whilome in re

nowne, Whilome in wealth and fame, shalt thus

be torne, Dismembred thus, and thus be rent in

twaine, Thus wasted and defaced, spoyled and

destroyed, These be the fruites your civil warres

will bring. Hereto it comes, when kinges will not

. consent To grave advise, but follow wilfull will. This is the end, when in fonde princes

Thus wreke the gods, when that the

mother's wrath Nought but the bloud of her owne childe

may swage. These mischiefes spring when rebells will

arise, To worke revenge, and judge their prin

ces fact. This, this ensues, when noble men do

faile In loyall trouth, and subjectes will be

kinges. And this doth growe, when loe unto the

prince, Whom death or sodeine happe of life

beraves,
No certaine heire remaines; such cer-

taine heire
not all onely is the rightfull

heire,
But to the realme is so made knowen

to be, And trouth therby vested in subjectes

hartes.—Park.] y The same may be said of Sackville's Sonnet prefixed to Thomas Hoby's English version of Castiglio's Il Cortegiano, first printed in 1556. The third part, on the behaviour of Court-ladies, appears to have been translated in 1551, at the request of the marchioness of Northampton.

As

hartes

I advice.

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than that of Antony Wood, who supposes GORBODUC to have been in old English rhyme, that the three first acts were written by Thomas Norton, and the two last by Sackville * But the force of internal evidence often prevails over the authority of assertion, a testimony which is diminished by time, and may be rendered suspicious from a variety of other circumstances. Throughout the whole piece, there is an invariable uniformity of diction and versification. Sackville has two poems of considerable length in the MirrouR FOR MAGISTRATES, which fortunately furnish us with the means of comparison: and every scene of GORBODUC is visibly marked with his characteristical mannert, which consists in a perspicuity of style, and a command of numbers, superior to the tone of his times'. Thomas Norton's poetry is of a very different and a subordinate cast: and if we may judge from his share in our metrical psalmody, he seems to have been much more properly qualified to shine in the miserable mediocrity of Sternhold's

[Could we suppose, that Norton wrote the first three acts of Gorboduc, it would infinitely diminish Sackville's merit, because the design and example must be given to the former. Norion might write dully, as we find most poets do, on sacred subjects; and with inore spirit when left to his own invention. Shakspeare himself wrote but dully, in his historic poem of Tarquin and Lucrece. Yet it is difficult to conceive how Sackville and Norton, whose general poetic talents were so widely different, could write distinct parts of a play, the whole of which should appear of uniform merit; like the famous statue made by two sculptors in different countries, which so greatly excited the wonder of Pliny.--Ashby.]

+ [The reflections of Eubulus at the close of the drama on the miseries of civil war, are so patriotically interesting, that I am impelled to take the occasion of placing an extract from them in the margin. And thou, O Brittaine! whilome in re

nowne, Whilome in wealth and fame, shalt thus

be torne, Dismembred thus, and thus be rent in

twaine, Thus wasted and defaced, spoyled and

destroyed, These be the fruites your civil warres

will bring. Hereto it comes, when kinges will not

Flattery prevailes, and sage rede i hath

no place. These are the plages, when murder is the

meane To make new heires unto the royall

crowne. Thus wreke the gods, when that the

mother's wrath Nought but the bloud of her owne childe

may swage. These mischiefes spring when rebells will

arise, To worke revenge, and judge their prin

ces fact. This, this ensues, when noble men do

faile In loyall trouth, and subjectes will be

kinges. And this doth growe, when loe unto the

prince, Whom death or sodeine happe of life

beraves, No certaine heire remaines; such cer

taine heire As not all onely is the rightfull

heire, But to the realme is so made knowen

to be, And trouth therby vested in subjectes

hartes.—PARK.] y The same may be said of Sackville's Sonnet prefixed to Thomas Hoby's English version of Castiglio's Il Cortegiano, first printed in 1556. The third part, on the behaviour of Court-ladies, appears to have been translated in 1551, at the request of the marchioness of Northampton.

consent To grave advise, but follow wilfull will. This is the end, when in fonde princes

hartes

I advice.

stanza, and to write spiritual rhymes for the solace of his illuminated brethren, than to reach the bold and impassioned elevations of tragedy.

SECTION LVII.

Classical drama revived and studied. The Phænissæ of Euripides

translated by Gascoigne. Seneca's Tragedies translated. Account of the translators, and of their respective versions. Queen Elizabeth

translates a part of the Hercules Oetæus. This appearance of a regular tragedy, with the division of acts and scenes, and the accompaniment of the ancient chorus, represented both at the Middle Temple and at Whitehall, and written by the most accomplished nobleman of the court of queen Elizabeth, seems to have directed the attention of our more learned poets to the study of the old classical drama, and in a short time to have produced vernacular versions of the Jocasta of Euripides, as it is called, and of the ten Tragedies of Seneca. I do not find that it was speedily followed by any original compositions on the same legitimate model.

The Jocasta of Euripides was translated by George Gascoigne and Francis Kinwelmersh, both students of Gray’s-inn, and acted in the refectory of that society, in the year 1566. Gascoigne translated the second, third *, and fifth acts, and Kinwelmersh the first and fourth. It was printed in Gascoigne's poems, of which more will be said hereafter, in 1577, under the following title, “ JOCASTA, a Tragedie written in Greeke by Euripides. Translated and digested into Acte, by George Gascoigne and Francis Kinwelmershe of Graies inn, and there by them presented, An. 1566." The Epilogue was written in quatraines by Christopher Yelverton, then one of their brother students. So strongly were our audiences still attached to spectacle, that the authors did not venture to present their play, without introducing a DUMB Show at the beginning of every act. For this, however, they had the example and authority of GORBODUC. Some of the earliest specimens of Inigo Jones's Grecian architecture are marred by Gothic ornaments.

It must, however, be observed, that this is by no means a just or exact translation of the JOCASTA, that is the PhenISSÆ, of Euripides. It is partly a paraphrase, and partly an abridgement, of the Greek tragedy. There are many omissions, retrenchments, and transpositions. The chorus, the characters, and the substance of the story,

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[This third act has no denotation of its translator, in edit. 1575.—PARK.]

are entirely retained, and the tenor of the dialogue is often preserved through whole scenes. Some of the beautiful odes of the Greek chorus are neglected, and others substituted in their places, newly written by the translators. In the favorite address to Mars, Gascoigne has totally deserted the rich imagery of Euripides, yet has found means to form an original ode, which is by no means destitute of pathos or imagination.

O fierce and furious Mars! whose harmefull hart
Reioiceth most to shed the giltlesse blood ;
Whose headie will doth all the world subvart,
And doth enuie the pleasant merry mood
Of our estate, that erst in quiet stood:
Why dost thou thus our harmlesse towne annoy,
Whych mighty Bacchus gouerned in ioy?
Father of warre and death, that doost remoue,
With wrathfull wrecke, from wofull mothers brest
The trusty pledges of their tender loue!
So graunt the goddes, that for our finall' rest
Dame Venus' pleasant lookes may please thee best:
Whereby, when thou shalt all amazed stand,
The sword may fall out of thy trembling handb:
And thou mayst proue some other way ful wel
The bloody prowess of thy mighty speare,
Wherewith thou raisest from the depth of hel
The wrathful sprites of all the Furies there;
Who, when they wake, do wander euery where,
And neuer rest to range about the costes,
T enrich that pit with spoyle of damned ghostes.
And when thou hast our fields forsaken thus,
Let cruel DISCORD beare thee company,
Engirt with snakes and serpents venemous ;
Euen She, that can with red vermilion die
The gladsome greene that florisht pleasantly;
And make the greedy ground a drinking cup,
To sup the blood of murdered bodies vp.
Yet thou returne, O Ioie, and pleasant Peace!
From whence thou didst against our willes depart:
Ne let thy worthie mind from trauel cease,
To chase disdayne out of the poysned heart,
That raysed warre to all our paynes and smart,

See Phæniss. p. 140. edit. Barnes.

Ω πολυμοχθος Αρης, ,
Τι ποθ' αιματι
Και θανατω κατεχη, &c.

b So Tibullus, where he cautions Mars not to gaze on his mistress, lib. iv. ii. 3.

At tu, violente, caveto, Ne tibi miranti turpiter arma cadant.

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