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the tricks; but in my opinion, so improperly, that I do not hesitate to propose the following Law to be added to the present Code ;
" Whoever calls, having only one honour in his hand, should forfeit in proportion to any advantage that actually does or may possibly accrue from the fault. Should it prevent the adversaries from calling, after the hand is played out, the honours shall take place of the trick's.”
Case 2. The dealer, after showing the trump card, through awkwardness, let it fall on its face. It was de. termined on the spot that the deal should not stand good, but the card having been seen, as there could be no pos. sible advantage made by the mistake, I am of a different opinion, and propose the following addition to the 5th law, as it now stands in this book
* But if the card is shown, and falls on its face by accident afterward, then the deal to stand good.”
Case 3. A playing out of his turn, B his partner was directed to play a trump. B however led another suit, and three or four cards were played before it was discovered that B had a trump in his hand. It was referred to me on the spot, as no printed laws reached the case. I decided that the cards should be taken up again, and a trump led by B, as directed, 'This decision was approved by both parties, and I propose it as a law on any similar occasion.
Case 4. A called at 8, his partner did not answei, though he had an honour, having a bet on the odd trick. The adversaries contended that the deal should not stand, and a wager was laid in consequence, and refer. red to me. I decided that the game was fairly won, because there could be no possible advantage made of the circumstance as far as related to the game, though it might as to the trick, had that been the case referred. I think it impossible to object to the following law, viz.
“No one is obliged to answer to his partner's call, even though he has the other two honours in his hand.”
Case 5. A at the score of 8, on gradually opening his hand, saw two honours in it immediately, and told his partner of it, who did not answer. A continuing to look through his cards, found a third honour, and showed them down. It was contended that he had no right to do this, and decided, as I bear, against bim;
am fully convinced improperly, and I propose as a Law, that
“No inan having three honours in his hand can be precluded from taking advantage of them at any time previous to his playing a card."
shall now attempt to trame a Law, which if agreed to, will, in my opinion, put a stop to a practice that, though perhaps not meant so, is in itself absolutely unfair, and what is still worse, is the parent of all those unpleasant disputes and altercations which form the only objections to a game in every other respect calculated for rational amusement. I need scarcely add, that I mean the discovery, by words or gestures, of your approbation or dislike to your partyer's play, before the deal is absolutely finished. I do not mean to prevent talking over the last hand between the deals, but that it should be absolutely prohibited under a severe penalty to say a word between the turning up of the trump card and playing the last card of the deal, except what is already allowed by the rules of the game-such as to ask what are trumps, to desire the cards may be drawn, &c. The law I propose is this
"Whoever shall by word or gesture, manifestly discover his approval or disapprobation of his partner's mode of play, or ask any questions but such as are spe. cifically allowed by the existing laws of Whist, the adversary shall either add a point to his own score, or deduct one from the party so transgressing at his option."
CONCLUSION. I have been desired by some beginners to whom this hook is particularly addressed to give a minute definition of iwo words, which, though universally used, are pot generally understood-I mean Tenace and Finesse. Indeed the game depends so much on the comprehen. sion of their principles, that any man vesirous of ob. taining even a competent knowledge of it, will never regret the trouble of the study.
Many parts of whist are mechanical, and neither maxims nor instructions are necessary to inform the beginner, that an ace wins king, or that you niust follow" the suit played, if you have one in your hand.
The principle of the Tenace is simple. If A has the ace and queen of a suit, and B his adversary, has the king and knave, the least consideration will show that
if A leads, B wins a trick, and vice versa ; of course, in every such situation it is the mutual plan of players by leading a losing card to put it to the adversary's hand to oblige him to lead that suit, whereby you preserve the tenace. So far is easily comprehended; but it requires attention with practice to apply the principle so obvious ! in the superior, to the inferior cards, or see that the same tenace operates occasionaliy with the seven and five, as the ace and queen, and is productive of the same advanfage : A, last player, remains with the ace and queen of a suit not played, the last trump, and losing card. B, his left hand adversary, leads a forcing card QueryHow is A to play? Answer-If three tricks win the game or any particular point, he is not to ruff, but throw away his losing card, because his left hand adversary being then obliged to lead to hos suit, he remains tenace, and must make his ace and queen. But upon a supposition that making the four pricks gains him the rubber, he should then take the force, as in these situations you are justified in giving up the tenace for an equal chance of making any material point
The Finesse has a near affinity to the tenace, except that the latter is equally the object where two, and the former only where there are four players. A has the ace and queen of a suit led by his partner, now the dullest beginner will see it proper to put on the queen: and this is called finessing it, and the intention is obvi. ously to prevent the king from making, if in the band of his right hand adversary. Should it not be there, it is evident you neither gain nor lose by making the finesse; but few players carry this idea down to the inferior cards, or see that a trick might be made by a judicious finesse, against an eight as a king—but to know exactly when this should be done, requires more skill than in the more obvious cases, united with memory and observation. Another case of anesse even against two cards frequently occurs, and the reason on reflection is self-evident.
A leads the ten of a suit of which his partner has the ace, knave and a small one ; B should finesse or let the ten pass; even though he knows the king or queen are in his left hand adversary's hand : because he preserves the tenace, and probably makes two tricks; whereas had he put on his ace, he could make but one--in short, tenace is the game of position, and finesse the art of placing yourself in the advantageous one.
THE GAME OF QUADRILLE.
The Game of Quadrille is played by four persons. The number of cards required are forty. The four tenca nines, and eights, are discarded from the pack. The deal is made by distributing the cards to each player, three at a time, for two rounds, and four at a time for one round; commencing with the right-hand player, who is eldest hand.
The trump is made by him or her who plays, with or in without calling, by naming spades, clubs, diamonds, or hearts, and the suit so named become trumps.
The two following tables will show the rank and order of the cards, when trumps, or when not so.
RANK AND ORDER OF THE CARDS WHEN
Clubs and Spades. Spadille, the ace of
spades. Manille, the deuce of
spades or of clubs Baslo, the ace of clubs.
Hearts and Diamonds.
hearts or of diamonds. Basto, the ace of clubs. Punto, the ace of hearts or of diamonds.
11 in all
12 in all
RANK AND ORDER OF THE CARDS WHEN
Seven 9 in all
10 in all From these tables it will be observed that spadille and basto are always trumps : and that the red suits have one trump more than the black : the former twelve, the latter only eleven.
There is a tru.np between spadille and basto, which is called manille, and is in black the deuce, and in red the seven : they are the second cards when trumps, and the last in their respective suits when not trumps. Example: the deuce of spades being second trump, when they are trumps, and lowest card when clubs, hearts, or diamonds are trumps; and so of the rest.
Punto is the ace of hearts or diamonds, which are above the king, and the fourth trump, when either of those suits are trumps; but are below the knave, and called ace of diamonds or hearts when they are not trumps. The two of hearts or diamonds is always su. perior to the three; the three to the four; the four to the five, and the five to the six : the six is only superior to the seven when it is not trumps, for when the seven is manille it is the second trump.
There are three matadores, viz. spadille, manille, and basto; whose privilege is, when the player has no other trumps but them, and trumps are led, he is not obliged to play them, but may play what card he thinks proper, provided, however, that the trump led is of an inferior value; but if spadille should be led, he that has manille or basto only is compelled to play it, which is the case with basto in respect to manille, the superior matadore always forcing the inferior.