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commanding card of each suit. It is possible to assist the memory by the mode of placing the cards remaining in your hand-viz. Place the trumps in the back part of
your hand, your partner's lead the next, your adversary's next, and your own on the outside. It is also right to put the thirteenth cards in some known situation.
61. It is highly necessary to be correct in the leads. When a good player plays an eight and then a seven, I know he leads from a weak suit; the contrary, when he plays the seven first: the same even with a tray or deuce. This is what bad players always err in, as they never can see the difference.
62. If left with the last trumps, and some winning cards, with one losing one, play the first, as your adversary may finesse, and the second best in your partner's hand make the trick, which could not be kept till the last.
63. Should your partner refuse to trump a certain winning card, try to get the lead as soon as you can, and play out trumps immediately.
64. Good players never lead a nine or a ten but for one of three reasons.
1st. From a sequence up to the king. 2d. From nine, ten, knave, and king.
3d. When the best of a weak suit not exceeding three in number.
If you have either knave or king in your own hand, you are certain it is for the latter reason, and that the whole strength of the suit is with your adversary, and play your game accordingly. 65. If your partner leads the nine or ten, and
you have an honour, with only one more, put it on : if with two or more, do not: with the ace and small ones, win it, invariably; for it is better that he should finesse, in his own suit, than you.
66. Unless you have a strong suit yourself, or reason to suppose your partner has one, do not trump out, unless you have six trumps.
67. There are situations where even good players differ; if a queen is led on your right hand, and you have ace or king aod two small ones, you should certainly win it; but having king or ace, ten, and a small one, I invariably pass it, and for the following reasons-by passing it, if your partner has the ace, or king, you clearly lie tenace, and the leader cannot possibly make a trick in
the suit, which he must have done had you even the first trick, as he would lie tenace over your partner. If your partner has the knave, you lose a trick, but the odds are greatly against this.
68. It is seldom right to lead from a suit in which you have a tenace. With ace, queen, &c. of one suit; king, knave, &c. of a second ; and third weak one, the best play is to lead from the latter. 69. When it is evident the winning cards are betwixt
your adversaries, play an obscure game; but as clear a one as possible, if your partner has a good band.
70. It is equally advantageous to lead up to, as through an ace; not so much so to a king, and disadvantageous to the queen turned up.
71. Avoid at first playing with those who instruct, or rather find fault, while the hand is playing. They generally are unqualified by ignorance, and judge from consequences; but if not, advice, while playing, does more harm than good, by confusing a beginner. 72. It is seldorn right to refuse to ruff when your part
if a good player, visibly intends you should do it. If a bad one, your own hand should direct you.
73. If you have ace, king, and two more trumps, and your partner leads them originally, ensure three rounds in trumps; but if he leads (in consequence of your showing your strength) a nine or anv equivocal card, in that case, pass it the first time; by which you will have the lead, after three rounds of trumps; a most material advantage.
74 There is often judgment required in taking the penalties of a revoke. Before the score is advanced, if the party revoking has won nine tricks, the least consideration will show, that the adversaries should take three of them, for if they add three to their own score, they will leave the odd trick to the former: but if the revoking party are at eight, it is better for the adversary to score three points, as the odd trick leaves the former at nine, which is in every respect a worse point than eight. On other occasions, it is only to calculate how the different scores will remain after each mode of taking the penalty ; and it will be obvious which will be the most advantageous-never losing sight of the points of the game; i. e. scoring eight or five yourself, or preventing your adversary from doing so,
75. With ace, queen, and ten, of your right hand ad. versary's lead, put on the ten.
76. When your left hand adversary refuses to trump a winning card, for fear of being overtrumped by your partner, and throws away a losing card, if you have the commanding card of the suit he discards, play it out before you continue the former.
77. Wnen all the trumps are out, if you have the commanding card of your adversaries' suit, you may play your own, as if you had the thirteenth trump in your own hard.
78. If A, your right hand adversary, leads a card, and his partner B, putting on the knave or queen, yours wins with the king-should A lead a small card of that suit again, if you have the ten, put it on. It is probable, that by doing this, you keep the commanding card in your partner's hand, and prevent the second best from making.
79. If weak in trumps, keep guard on your adversa. ries' suits. If
away from them, and dis. card as much as possible fron, your partner's strong suits in either case.
80. Should your left hand adversary lead the king, to have the finesse of the knave, and it comes to your lead, if you have the
queen and one more, it is evident the finesse will succeed. In this case, play the small one through him, which frequently will prevent him from making the finesse, though he has originally played for it.
81. If your partner shows a weak game, force him, whether or no you are otherwise entitled to do it.
82. When you are at the score of four or nine, and your adversaries, though eight, do not call, you have no honour, it is evident your partner has two at least. It is equally so if you have one, that he has at least ano. ther. If both parties are at eight, and neither calls, each must have one.
A little reflection will enable the beginner to make a proper; advantage of these data.
83. When your partner leads a card of which you have the best and third, and your right hand adversary puts on the fourth, the second only remaining-it is a commonly received, but erroneous opinion, that the chance of succeeding in the finesse is equal; but here calculation will show, that as the last player has one
card more than his partner, it is that proportion in favour of his having it. With three cards, it will be three to two against making the finesse.
84. Moderate players have generally a decided aversion to dart with the best trump, though single ; thinking, that as they cannot lose h, and it can make but one trick, it is immaterial when it does so; this is a dan. gerous fault. When your adversary plays out his strong suit, ruff it immediately, before you give his partner an opportunity to throw off his losing cards. Do not, how ever, go into the contrary extreme, or trump with the best trump, with small ones in your hand, for fear of being overtrumped. This is a nice part of the game, and can only be understood from practice and attentive reasoning
85. It frequently happens that your partner has an opportunity io show his strong suit, by renouncing to a lead. If you have a single card in this, play it before you force bim, let your strength in trumps be what it may; as it is the way to establish the saw, which is al. most always advantageous: should the second player put on the ace to prevent it, still it is of great utility by establishing your partner's suit.
86. A has ace, knave, ten, and a small card of the suit led by the right hand adversary. Query-Which is he to play? Answer-In trumps, the ten; in other suits the small ones. For this reason-in trumps, a good player, with king, queen, &c leads the lowest ; in other suits the king; and in the latter case, of course an honour must be behind you; and be it in either hand, you can do no good by putting on the ten : by keeping the three together you render it impossible for your adversary to make one trick in the suit.
87. It often happens that with only three cards remaining in his hand the leader has the worst trump, and ace, queen, or some tenace of another suit. In this case he should lead the trump, to put it into his adversary's hand to play. By these means he preserves the tenace. This, though self evident on proper consideration, is what none but good players ever think of.
88. Though it is certainly more regular to win your adversary's as well as partner's lead with the lowest of a sequence, still I recommend occasional deviations from that maxim ; as it is of the greatest advantage to give your partner every information in his, or your own, so
it is often to deceive your adversaries in their suits. It will now and then deceive your partner also; but if done with judgment, it is, I think, oftener atiended with good than bad effect.
There are also other situations, where it is highly necessary to deceive the adversary. A, last player, has a a terce major, and a small trump; a terce major, with two others of a second suit; king, and a small one of a third ; with queen or kuave, and a small one of the fourth, of which bis adversary leads the ace.
It is so very material for A to get the lead, before he is forced, that he should without hesitation throw down the queen, as the most likely method to induce his adversary to change his lead. But this mode of play should be reserved for material occasions, and not by its frequency give cause for its being suspected.
89 Beginners find it difficult to distinguish between original and forced leads. When a player changes his original suit, he corninonly leads his strongest card of another, to give his partner the advantage of a finesse. In this case you are to play this, as if it was your own or adversary's lead-keep the commanding card, tenace, &c. and do not return it, as if it was an original lead.
90. There is nothing more necessary to explain to the beginner, than what is usually denominated underplay, as it is a onstant engine in the hands of the experienced, to use successfully against the inexperienced player. In other words, it is to return the lowest of your left hand adversary's lead, though you have the highest in your hand, with the view of your partner's making the third best, if he has it, and still retaining the commanding card in your hand.
91. To explain this further, suppose A fourth player has ace and king of his left hand adversary's lead: to underplay, he wins the trick with the ace, and returns the small one, which will generally succeed, if the leader has not the second and third in his own hand. You will see by this, if you lead from a king, &c. and your right hand adversary, after winning with a ten or a Knave, return it, you have no chance to make your king, but by putting it on.
92. The following is another situation to underplay: A remains with the first, third, and fourth cards of a suit, of which he has reason to suppose his left hand adversary has the second guarded; by playing the