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demanded satisfaction for the insult offered him on the field of battle. On deliberation, tie Commander in Chief informed him " that he should have an opportunity to justify himself to the army, to America, and the world, or of convincing them that he had been guilty of breach of orders and misconduct before the enemy." General Lee, expressing his desire for a Court Mart hi in preference to a Court of Inquiry, was arrested upon the following charges,
1. For disobedience of orders in not attacking the enemy on the 28th of June agreeably to repeated instructions. 2 For misbehaviour before the enemy on the same day, by making an unnecessary, disorderly, and shameful retreat. 3. For disrespect to the Commander in Chief, in two letters.
The high colouring of the second charge was in consequence of complaints entered by Generals Wayne and Scott, against General Lee, which on investigation appeared to have been founded in their misapprehending his movements. Lord Sterling presided at the court, which found him guilty of all the charges, but softened the language of the second, and found him guilty of misbehaviour, by making an unnecessary, and in some few instances, a disorderly retreat. The court sentenced him to be suspended from his command for one year.
Congress, with some hesitation, almost unanimously approved the sentence.
The suspension of General Lee was highly satisfactory to the army. They keenly resented his abuse to the Commander in Chief, and his continuance in jommission probably would have produced great inconvenience.
Scarcely had Sir Henry Clinton reached New-York, when a French fleet appeared off the Chesapeak, un der the command of Count d'Estaing. He had been Vol. I. 15
eighty-seven days in crossing the Atlantick. Had his passage been an ordinary one, he would have found Lord Howe in the Delaware, and the capture or destruction of the British fleet in that river, and probably of the army in Philadelphia, must have bean the consequence. Count d'Estaing being disappointed at the Delaware, sailed along the coast to Sandy Hook General Washington moved his army to the White Plains, that he might be in a situation to co-operate with the French Admiral against New-York.
In the mean time, Sir Henry Clinton employed his whole force to strengthen his lines. The French Admiral finding an attack upon New-York impracticable, a conjoint expedition was planned against RhodeIsland.
At the critical moment when the success of the united action of the French and American army was reduced to a moral certainty, Count d'Estaing sailed out of the harbour of Newport to fight Lord Howe Being overtaken by a violent storm, his fleet was greatly damaged, and he thought it adviseable to repair to Boston harbour to refit.
In conseqrence of the harbour of Newport being opened to the British, General Sullivan, the commanding officer upon Rhode-Island, was compelled to retreat. He and his general officers had remonstrated against Count d'Estaing leaving Newport, and in the moment of disappointment and irritation at the failure of the expedition, General Sullivan in or dors, used expressions which were construed into a severe reflection upon the French Admiral and other marine officers, and which they resented.
General Washington, alarmed at the probable consequences of a misunderstanding and jealousy between the French and Americans, so soon after the alliance was formed, and in tho very commencement of their united operations, immediately adopted measures to prevent them. In letters to Generals Heath and Sulli
van, he communicated the mode of conduct which ho wished might in this delicate transaction be pursued.
To Heath, who commanded in Boston, he expressed his apprehension that resentment of the conduct of the Count might prevent the proper exertion to repair and victual the French fleet, and he urged Heath to counteract such prejudices.
"It will certainly be sound policy to combat the effects, and whatever private opinions may be entertained, to give the best construction of what has happened to the publick; and at the same time to exert ourselves to put the French fleet, as soon as possible, in a condition to defend itself, and be useful to us The departure of the floet from Rhode-Island is not yet publickly announced here ; but when it is, I intend to ascribe it to necessity produced by the damage received in the late storm. This, it appears to me, is the idea which ought to be generally propagated. As I doubt not, the force of these reasons will strike you equally with myself, I would recommend to you to use your utmost influence to palliate and soften matters, and to induce those, whose business it is, to provide succours of every kind for the fleet, to employ their utmost zeal and activity in doing it. It is our duty to make the best of our misfortunes, and not suffer passion to interfere with our interest and the publick good."
To General Sullivan he mentioned "his apprehension that should the expedition fail, in consequence of being abandoned by the French fleet, loud complaint* might be made by the officers employed on it. Prudence," he said, " dictated the propriety of giving this affair the best appearance, and of attributing tho withdrawing the fleet from Rhode-Island to absolute necessity. The reasons," he added, "for this line of conduct, were too obvious to need explanation. That of most importance was, that their cuci lies, both in
tcrnal and external, would seize the first cause of die gust between the allies, and endeavour to convert it into a serious rupture."
When the General received the resolution of Congross, directing him to take every measure in his power to prevent the publication of the protest entered into by General Sullivan and his officers, he communicated the resolution and with it the following letter. "The disagreement between the army under your command, and the fleet, has given mc very singular uneasiness. The continent at large is concerned in our cordiality, and it should be kept up by all possible means consistent with our honour and policy. First impressions, you know, are generally longest retained, and will serve to fix, in a great degree, our national character with the French. In our conduct towards them, we should remember, that they are a people old in war, very strict in military etiquette, and apt to take fire when others scarcely seem warmed. Permit me to recommend, in the most particular manner, the cultivation of harmony and good agreement, and your endeavours to destroy that ill humour which may have found its way among the officers. It is of the utmost importance too, that the soldiers and the people should know nothing of this misunderstanding, or, if it has reached them, that means may be used to stop its progress and prevent its effects."
In a correspondence with Count d'Estaing, General Washington strove to soften his resentments, to sooth tho chagrin of disappointment, and to conciliate his good affections towards the United States.
These prudent measures were attended with the most salutary effects.
With the battle of Monmouth, active operations fcr the campaign closed in the Middle States. On the approach of winter, the American army went into quarters in the neighbourhood of the High Lands. Being better clothed and fed than in tne preceding winter, their situation was greatly ameliorated, and their sufferings were comparatively nothing.
At the close of the campaign of 1778, the local situation of the hostile armies did not greatly differ from that at the commencement of the campaign of 1770, except the possession of New-York by thi British.
This fact is impressively stated by General Wash Isgton, in a letter written to a friend. "It is not a little pleasing, nor less wonderful to contemplate, that after two years manoeuvring, and undergoing the strangest vicissitudes, both armies are brought back to the very point they set out from, and the offending party in the beginning is now reduced to the use of the pickaxe and the spade for defence. The hand of providence has been so conspicuous in all this, that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more than wicked that has not gratitude to ackncw lodge his obligations."