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Queen. What can I gather hence? Why Queen. He is, indeed, 114 a helmet to us dost thou speak

all; Like men who carry rareesliows * about? While he supports we need not fear to “Now you shall see, gentlemen, what you

fall; shall see.''

His arm dispatches all things to our wish, 0, tell me more, or thou hast told too And serves up every foe's lead in a dish. much.

Void is the mistress of the house of care.
While the good cook presents the bill of


Whether the cod, that northern king of

fish, (King, Queen, Noodle.)

Or duck, or goose, or pig, adorn the dish, Nood. Long life attend your majesties se- No fears the number of ler guests afrene,

ford, Great Arthur, king, and Dollallolla, But at her hour she sees the dinner on queen!

the board. Lord Grizzle, with a bold rebellious

crowd, Advances to the palace, threatening loud,

SCENE 7. A Plain. Unless the princess be delivered straight,

(Grizzle, Foodle, Rebels.) And the victorious Thumb, without his

Griz. Thus far our arms with victory are pate, They are resolved to batter down the

crowned; gate.

For, though we have not fought, yet we

have found

115 No enemy to fight withal.

Yet I,

Methinks, would willingly avoid this day, (King, Queen, Iluncamunca, Noodle.) 116 This first of April, to engage our foes. King. See where the princess comes ! Griz. This day, of all the days of th' year, Where is Tom Thumb ?

I'd choose, Hunc. Oh! sir, about an hour and half For on this day my grandmother was

born. ago He sallied out to encounter with the foe,

Gods! I will make Tom Thumb an And swore, unless his fate had him mis

April-fool; led,

from the speech of a much braver fellow than Alman From Grizzle's shoulders to cut off his zor, Mr. Johnson's Achilles : head,

Though human race rise in embattled hosts,

To force her from my arms-Oh! son of Atreus! And serve't up with your chocolate in By that immortal power, whose deathless spirit bed.

Informs this earth, I will oppose them all.

Tietim. King. 'T is well, I found one devil told 114 "I have heard of being supported by a staff

, us both.

says Mr. D., “but never of being supported by an

helmet." I believe he never heard of sailing with Come, Dollallolla, Huncamunca, come; wings, which he may read in no less a poet than Yr Within we'll wait for the victorious Dryden:

Unless we borrow wings, and sail through air.

Love Triumphant. In peace and safety we secure may stay,

What will he say to a kneeling valley !

I'll stand While to his arm we trust the bloody Like a safe valley, that low bends the knee fray;

To some aspiring mountain.

Injured Lore.

I am ashamed of so ignorant a carper, who doth not Though men and giants should conspire know that an epithet in tragedy is very often no other with gods,

than an expletive. Do not we read in the Nes

Sophonisba of "grinding chains, blue plagues, white 113 He is alone equal to all these odds. occasions, and blue serenity ?" Nay, it is not the

adjective only, but sometimes half a sentence is put by "Credat Judæus Appella,

way of expletive, as, "Beauty pointed high with

spirit." in the same play; and “In the lap of blesssays Mr. D

“For, passing over the absurdity of ing, to be most curst, in the Revenge. being equal to odds, can we possibly suppose a little 115 A victory like that of Almanzor: insignificant fellow-I say again, a little insignificant Almanzor is victorious without fight. fellow-able to vie with a strength which all the Sam

Conquest of Granada sons and Herculeses of antiquity would be unable 116 Well have we chose an happy day for fight; to encounter ?" I shall refer this incredulous critic For every man, in course of time, has found to Mr. Dryden's defence of his Almanzor; and, lest Some days are lucky, some unfortunate. that should not satisfy him, I shall quote a few lines

King Arthur A peep-show, carried around in a box.


Non ego.


117 Will teach his wit an errand it ne'er A child, in time to come,

To be his heir, though it may be
M And send it post to the Elysian shades. No bigger than his thumb:
Food. I'm glad to find our army is so Of which old Merlin was foretold

That he his wish should have;
Nor does it move my wonder less than And so a son of stature small

The charmer to him gave.
Griz. 118 What friends we have, and how
we came so strong,

Thou 'st heard the past, look up and see

the future. I'll softly tell you as we march along.

Thumb. 122 Lost in amazement's gulf, my SCENE 8. Thunder and Lightning.

senses sink;

See there, Glumdalca, see another 123 me! (Tom Thumb, Glum dalca, cum suis.) Glum. O, sight of horror! see, you are

devoured the è Thumb. Oh, Noodle! hast thou seen a day

By the expanded jaws of a red cow. like this? 119 The unborn thunder rumbles o'er our

Merl. Let not these sights deter thy noble

120 As if the gods meant to unhinge the

124 For, lo! a sight more glorious courts

thy eyes.

See from afar a theatre arise;
And heaven and earth in wild confusion

There ages, yet unborn, shall tribute pay hurl;

To the heroic actions of this day;
Yet will I boldly tread the tottering ball.

Then buskin tragedy at length shall Merl. Tom Thumb!

choose Thumb. What voice is this I hear?

Thy name the best supporter of her muse. Jleri.

Tom Thumb!

Thumb. Enough: let every warlike music Thumb. Again it calls.

sound. Merk

Tom Thumb! Glum.

It calls again.

We fall contented, if we fall renown'd. Si Thumb. Appear, whoe'er thou art; I fear

SCENE 9. thee not. Merl. Thou hast no cause to fear, I am (Lord Grizzle, Foodle, Rebels, on one side; thy friend,

Tom Thumb, Glumdalca, on the other.) Merlin by name, a conjurer by trade,

Food. At length the enemy advances nigh, And to my art thou dost thy being owe. 125 I hear them with my ear, and see Thumb. How!

them with my eye. Merl. Hear then the mystic getting of Griz. Draw all your swords: for liberty Tom Thumb.

we fight,

126 And liberty the mustard is of life. 121 His father was a ploughman plain, His mother milked the cow;

122 Amazement swallows up my sense,

And in the impetuous whirl of circling fate And yet the way to get a son

Drinks down my reason.

Persian Prince88.

123 This couple knew not how.

I have outfaced myself.

What! am I two? Is there another me? Until such time the good old man

King Arthur. To learned Merlin goes,

124 The character of Merlin is wonderful through

out; but most so in this prophetic part. We find And there to him, in great distress,

several of these prophecies in the tragic authors, who In secret manner shows;

frequently take this opportunity to pay a compliment How in his heart he wished to have

to their country, and sometimes to their prince. None but our author (who seems to have detested

the least appearance of flattery) would have passed 117 We read of such another in Lee:

by such an opportunity of being a political prophet. Teach his rude wit a flight she never made,

125 I saw the villain, Myron; with these eyes I And send her post to the Elysian shade.

saw him.

Busiris. Gloriana. In both which places it is intimated that it is some118 These lines are copied verbatim in the Indian times possible to see with other eyes than your own. Emperor.

126 "This mustard,” says Mr. D., "is enough to 119 Unborn thunder rolling in a cloud.

turn one's stomach, I would be glad to know what Conquest of Granada.

idea the author had in his head when he wrote it." 120 Were heaven and earth in wild confusion hurled, This will be, I believe, best explained by a line of Mr. Shonld the rash gods unhinge the rolling world, Dennis : Undaunted would I tread the tottering ball,

And gave him liberty, the salt of life. Crushed, but unconquered, in the dreadful fall.

Liberty Asserted. (Hopkins') Female Warrior. The understanding that can digest the one will not 121 See the History of Tom Thumb, page 2.

rise at the other. * With their followers.

131 But, ha! I feel death rumbling in my

brains: 132 Some kinder sprite knocks softly at

my soul,

Thumb. Are you the man whom men

famed Grizzle name? Griz. 127 Are you the much more famed

Tom Thumb ? Thumb.

The same. Griz. Come on; our worth upon ourselves

we'll prove; For liberty I fight. Thumb.

And I for love. (A bloody engagement between the two

armies here; drums beating, trumpets sounding, thunder and lightning. They fight off and on several times. Some fall.

Griz. and Glum. remain.) Glum. Turn, coward, turn; nor from a

woman fly. Griz. Away-thou art too ignoble for my

arm. Glum. Have at thy heart. Griz.

Nay, then I thrust at thine. Glum. You push too well; you've run me

through the guts. And I am dead. Griz.

Then there's an end of one. Thumb.

When thou art dead, then there's an end of two, 128 Villain. Griz. Tom Thumb! Thumb. Rebel! Griz. Tom Thumb! Thumb. Hell! Griz. Huncamunca! Thumb. Thou hast it there. Griz. Too sure I feel it. Thumb. To hell then, like a rebel as you

are, And give my service to the rebels there. Griz. Triumph not, Thumb, nor think

thou shalt enjoy Thy Huncamunca undisturbed ; I'll send 129 My ghost to fetch her to the other

world; 130 It shall but bait at heaven, and then

And gently whispers it to haste away. I come, I come, most willingly I come. 133 So when some city wife, for country

air, To Hampstead or to Highgate does re

pair, Her to make haste her husband does im

plore, And cries, "My dear, the coach is at the

door:" With equal wish, desirous to be gone, She gets into the coach, and then she

cries—"Drive on!” Thumb. With those last words 134 he vom

ited his soul, Which, 135 like whipt cream, the devil

will swallow down. Bear off the body, and cut off the head, Which I will to the king in triumph lug. Rebellion's dead, and now I'll go to



SCENE 10. (King, Queen, Huncamunca, Courtiers.) King. Open the prisons, set the wretched

free, And bid treasurer disburse sis

pounds To pay their debts.—Let no one weep

to-day. Come, Dollallolla ; curse that odious

name! It is so long, it asks an hour to speak it. By heavens! I'll change it into Doll, or

Loll, Or any other civil monosyllable, That will not tire my tongue.-Come, sit



thee down.

127 Han. Are you the chief whom men famed

Scipio call ?
Scip. Are you the much more famous Hannibal!

Hannibal. 128 Dr. Young seems to have copied this engage. ment in his Busiris.

Myr. Villain !
Mem. Myron!
Myr. Rebel!
Mem. Myron!
Myr. Hell!
Mem. Mandane!

129 This last speech of my Lord Grizzle hath been of great service to our poets :

I'll hold it fast
As life, and when life's gone I'll hold this last;
And if thou takest it from me when I'm slain,
I'll send my ghost, and fetch it back again.

Conquest of Granada.
130 My soul should with such speed obey,
It should not bait at heaven to stop its way.

Lee seems to have had this last in his eye:
*T was not my purpose, sir, to tarry there;
I would but go to heaven to take the air.

Gloriana 131 A rising vapor rumbling in my brains.

Cleomenes. 132 Some kind sprite knocks softly at my soul, To tell me fate 's at hand.

133 Mr. Dryden seems to have had this simile in his eye, when he says, My soul is packing up, and just on wing.

Conquest of Granada. 134 And in a purple vomit poured his soul.

135 The devil swallows vulgar souls
Like whipt cream,

136 How I could curse my name of Ptolemy!
It is so long, it asks an hour to write it.
By heaven! I'll change it into Jove or Mars!
Or any other civil monosyllable,
That will not tire my hand.

Cleomenes. It was applauded by several encores, a word


Here seated let us view the dancers' Queen. Not so much in a swoon but I have sports;

still Bid 'em advance. This is the wedding-day Strength to reward the messenger of ill Of Princess Huncamunca and Tom

news, Thumb;

(Kills Noodle.) Tom Thumb! who wins two victories 137 Nood. O! I am slain. to-day,

Cle. My lover's killed, I will revenge him And this way marches, bearing Grizzle's

SO. head.

(Kills the Queen.) A dance here.

Hunc. My mamma killed! vile murderess, Nood. Oh! monstrous, dreadful, terrible,

beware. Oh! Oh!

(Kills Cleora.) Deaf be my ears, for ever blind my eyes ! Dood. This for an old grudge to thy Dumb be my tongue! feet lame! all

heart. senses lost!

(Kills Huncamunca.) 138 Howl wolves, grunt bears, hiss snakes, Must. And this shriek all ye ghosts!

I drive to thine, O Doodle! for a new one. King. What does the blockhead mean?

(Kills Doodle.) Nood.

I mean, my liege, Ring. Ha! murderess vile, take that. 139 Only to grace my tale with decent

(Kills Must.) horror.

140 And take thou this. Whilst from my garret, twice two stories high,

(Kills himself, and falls.) I looked abroad into the streets below, So when the child, whom nurse from I saw Tom Thumb attended by the mob;

danger guards, Twice twenty shoe-boys, twice two dozen Sends Jack for mustard * with a pack of links,

cards, Chairmen and porters, hackney-coach- Kings, queens, and knaves, throw one whores;

another down, Aloft he bore the grizly head of Grizzle; Till the whole pack lies scattered and When of a sudden through the streets

o'erthrown; there came

So all our pack upon the floor is cast, A cow, of larger than the usual size, And all I boast is—that I fall the last. And in a moment-guess, Oh! guess the

(Dies.) rest!And in a moment swallowed up Tom 140 We may say with Dryden [Conquest of Gran

ada ] : Thumb.

Death did at length so many slain forget, King. Shut up again the prisons, bid my And left the tale, and took them by the great.

I know of no tragedy which comes nearer to this treasurer

charming and bloody catastrophe than Cleomenes, Not give three farthings out-hang all where the curtain covers five principal characters

dead on the stage.

These lines too the culprits,

I asked no questions then, of who killed who? Guilty or not-no matter.-Ravish vir- The bodies tell the story as they liegins:

seem to have belonged more properly to this scene of

our author; nor can I help imagining they were orig. Go bid the schoolmasters whip all their

inally, his.

The Rival Ladies (by Dryden), too,

seem beholden to this scene: boys!

We 're now a chain of lovers linked in death; Let lawyers, parsons, and physicians Julia goes first, Gonsalvo hangs on her, loose,

And Angelina hangs upon Gonsalvo,

As I on Angelina. To rob, impose on, and to kill the world. No scene, I believe, ever received greater honors than

this. Nood. Her majesty the queen is in a

very unusual in tragedy. And it was very difficult Swoon.

for the actors to escape without a second slaughter.

This I take to be a lively assurance of that fierce spirit 137 Here is a visible conjunction of two days in of liberty which remains among us, and which Mr. one, by which our author may have either intended Dryden, in his Essay on Dramatic Poetry, hath oban emblem of a wedding, or to insinuate that men in

served : “Whether custom, says he, "hath so insin. the honey-moon are apt to imagine time shorter than uated itself into our countrymen, or nature hath so it is. It brings into my mind a passage in the com. formed them to fierceness, I know not; but they will edy called The Coffee House Politician:

scarcely suffer combats and other objects of horror We will celebrate this day at my house to-morrow. to be taken from them." And indeed I am for

138 These beautiful phrases are all to be found in having them encouraged in this martial disposition: one single speech of King Arthur, or The British nor do I believe our victories over the French have Worthy.

been owing to anything more than to those bloody 139 I was but teaching him to grace his tale

spectacles daily exhibited in our tragedies, of which With decent horror.

Cleomenes. the French stage is so entirely clear.
Apparently a trick or, game in which cards are stood up on end and then knocked over.




SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774), born in cen- ceeded prodigiously,” according to even Hor tral Ireland, was educated in Dublin, later ace Walpole, who disliked it; everybod! studying medicine in various parts of Great watching Dr. Johnson, and laughing wher Britain and the Continent. After attempts he did. No wonder the author dedicated his as schoolmaster and physician, he settled play to its greatest supporter. down as a hack or miscellaneous writer, as The ridicule of sentimentalism is most ap which he was very successful, though nothing parent in the prologue and in scene ii of act I could have made him rich. Careless, mer- In the former, which was written by David curial, unpractical, generous, he like Steele Garrick the actor, the play is represented as and Sheridan was an example of some of the a last effort to revive the dying muse of sound traits often associated with the Irishman and legitimate comedy, and to save the world with the artistic temperament. Most of his from the deluge of maudlin sentimentality literary work

made-to-order and and platitude sentiments poured out by her mediocre; with now and then a masterpiece, rival. The parody of the

and like The Deserted Village among poems, The speeches of the sentimental hero must have Vicar of Wakefield among novels, and She been highly diverting on the stage. In the Stoops to Conquer among plays, which ad- other passage, the fellows at The Three vance him close to the front rank of eight- Pigeons love to hear the booby Tony Lumpkin eenth-century writers.

sing, bekeays he never gives us nothing Goldsmith's principal other play, The that's low.May this be my poison if mi Good Natur'd van, only moderately good bear ever dances but to the very genteelest and only moderately successful, in 1768 had of tunes.” Elsewhere also there is plenty of earned him £400 or £500, while The Vicar of satire, as in that on the insincere talk of the Wakefield seems to have fetched only some conventional hero in the embarrassed Mar. £63; though others of his non-dramatic works lowe's stuttering attempts at genteel converhad made more than this, it is no wonder sation with Miss Hardcastle (II. i), who that in his needs he turned to the stage again, speaks satirically of “a man of sentiment and in 1771 wrote She Stoops to Conquer, Yet, so hard is it to escape the mental atmoswhich was published and performed two years phere in which one lives, there are some later. Since he badly needed money, it is slight signs of the disease even in the physithe more to the credit of his literary con- cian who is to cure it, notably in Miss Ve science that he set himself against the pre- ville's somewhat exaggerated sense of provailing fashion of sentimentalism, and even priety: When she at last refuses to elope. publicly ridiculed it; but he had the per- prudence once more comes to her relief, and sonal reason that Hugh Kelly's False Deli- she will obey its dictates," but she is recacy, a rather wishy-washy specimen of the strained less by sense than by sensibility. type, had come out as a rival to his own It would have harmonized better with the earlier play. George Colman, the manager of high spirits of the play if she had been althe Covent Garden theater, doubting the suc. lowed to rattle off toward Scotland. But cess of She Stoops to Conquer, accepted it this would have prevented not only a grand only through the persuasions and almost the finale, with all the chief personages on the compulsion of Dr. Johnson, a warm friend stage, but also a sense of complete and duti of Goldsmith's. Johnson and other friends

ful propriety at the end, of all for the very went the first night to force applause, but best, of submitting oneself to all one's gover when the nervous author entered the theater nors, teachers, spiritual pastors, and masters behind the scenes during the fifth act, and Pshaw, pshaw!" cries Mrs. Hardcastle, ap heard a hiss (at the supposed improbability parently conscious of it, “ this is all but the of Mrs. Hardcastle in her own garden believ- whining end of a modern novel." ing herself forty miles from home), Colman Instead of the edification afforded by the maliciously said to him, “Pshaw, Doctor, over-sweet new style of play, Goldsmith meant don't be fearful of squibs, when we have been simply to amuse. He asked a friend to whom sitting almost these two hours upon a barrel he had given a ticket how he had liked the of gunpowder.” So strong had been the tide play. To the reply that it had made him of sentimentalism. But the tide was turned laugh he said, “That is all I ask.” He would back. The hiss was understood next day to stick to good old-fashioned styles in comedy, have come only from Cumberland, the high- as old Hardcastle in dress : “Is not the priest of sentimental comedy; the play

whole age in a combination to drive sense




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