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hind me,

Thus be they above angels in degree. As ever I did by Judas Maccabee. Know. If priests be good, it is so surely. Every. Alas, I am so faint I may not But when Jesus hanged on the cross with

stand, great smart,

My limbs under me do fold. There he gave, out of his blessed heart, Friends, let us not turn again to this The same sacrament in great torment;

land, He sold them not to us, that Lord om- Not for all the world's gold, nipotent.

For into this cave must I creep, Therefore Saint Peter the apostle doth And turn to earth and there to sleep. say

Beau. What, into this grave? alas! That Jesus' curse have all they

Every. Yea, there shall ye consume more Which God their Savior do buy or sell,

and less. Or they for any money do take or tell.52 Beau. And what, should I smother here? Sinful priests give the sinners example Every. Yea, by my faith, and never more bad,

appear. Their children sit by other men's fires, I In this world live no more we shall, have heard,

But in heaven before the highest Lord And some haunt women's company,

of all. With unclean life, as lusts of lechery; Beau. I cross out all this! Adieu, by These be with sin made blind.

Saint John! Five-W. I trust to God no such may we I take my tap in my lap and am gone.56 find.

Every. What, Beauty, whither will ye? Therefore let us priesthood honor, Beau. Peace! I am deaf, I look not beAnd follow their doctrine for our souls' succor;

Not and thou wouldest give me all the We be their sheep, and they shepherds gold in thy chest. be,

Every. Alas, whereto may I trust ? By whom we all be kept in surety.

Beauty goeth fast away from me, Peace, for yonder I see Everyman come, She promised with me to live and die. Which hath made true satisfaction. Stren. Everyman, I will thee also forsake

and deny; Re-enter Everyman.

Thy game

me not at all. Good-D. Methink it is he indeed.

Every. Why, then ye will forsake me all! Every. Now Jesu be your alder speed.53 Sweet Strength, tarry a little space. I have received the sacrament for my re- Stren. Nay, sir, by the rood of grace, demption,

I will hie me from thee fast, And then mine extreme unction :

Though thou weep to 58 thy heart toBlessed be all they that counselled me to take it!

Every. Ye would ever bide by me, ye said. And now, friends, let us go without Stren. Yea, I have you far enough conlonger respite;

veyed; I thank God that ye have tarried so long. Ye be old enough, I understand, Now set each of you on this rod 54 your Your pilgrimage to take on hand. hand,

I repent me that I hither came. And shortly follow me.

Every. Strength, you to displease I am to I go before, there I would be; God be

blame; your guide.

Will you break promise that is debt? Stren. Everyman, we will not from you Stren. In faith, I care not; go,

Thou art but a fool to complain, Till ye have done this voyage long.

You spend your speech and waste your Discr. 1, Discretion, will bide by you also.

brain; Know. And though this pilgrimage be Go, thrust thee into the ground! never so strong,65

Every. I had wend surer I should you I will never part you from.

have found. Everyman, I will be as sure by thee

He that trusteth in his Strength, 54 rood, cross.

66 proverbial

literally tap is a 57 pleaseth. 53 the help of you

hasty departure; spinning.

liketh 57



52 count.



55 hard.


bunch of tow for

58 till.

59 break in pieces,


She him deceiveth at the length.
Both Strength and Beauty forsake me,

Yet they promised me fair and lovingly. Discr. Everyman, I will after Strength be

gone, As for me I will leave you alone. Every. Why, Discretion, will ye forsake

me? Discr. Yea, in faith, I will go from thee,

For when Strength goeth before

I follow after evermore. Every. Yet, I pray thee, for the love of

the Trinity, Look in my grave once piteously. Discr. Nay, so nigh will I not come.

Farewell, every one! Every. Oh, all thing faileth, save God

alone, Beauty, Strength, and Discretion; For when Death bloweth his blast,

They all run from me full fast. Five-W. Everyman, my leave now of thee

I take; I will follow the other, for here I thee

forsake. Every. Alas! then may I wail and weep,

For I took you for my best friend. Fire-W. I will no longer thee keep;

Now farewell, and there an end. Every. O Jesu, help! all have forsaken

me! Good-D. Nay, Everyman, I will bide with

thee, I will not forsake thee indeed;

Thou shalt find me a good friend at need. Ecery. Gramercy, Good-Deeds, now may I

true friends see; They have forsaken me every one, I loved them better than my Good-Deeds

alone. Knowledge, will ye forsake me also ? Know. Yea, Everyman, when ye to death

Good-D. All earthly things is but vanity: Beauty, Strength, and Discretion, do

man forsake, Foolish friends and kinsmen that fair

spake, All flee save Good-Deeds, and that am I. Every. Have mercy on me, God most

mighty, And stand by me, thou Mother and Maid,

holy Mary. Good-D. Fear not, I will speak for thee. Every. Here I cry God mercy. Good-D. Short our end, and minish our

pain; Let us go and never come again. Every. Into thy hands, Lord, my soul I

Receive it, Lord, that it be not lost!
As thou me boughtest, so me defend,
And save me from the fiend's boast,
That I may appear with that blessed

That shall be saved at the day of doom.
In manus tuasof mights most
For ever--commendo spiritum meum.

(Dies.) Know. Now hath he suffered that we all

shall endure;
The Good-Deeds shall make all sure.
Now hath he made ending;
Methinketh that I hear angels sing
And make great joy and melody,

Where Everyman's soul received shall be. Angel. Come, excellent elect spouse to

Here above thou shalt go,
Because of thy singular virtue.
Now the soul is taken the body from
Thy reckoning is crystal-clear.
Now shalt thou into the heavenly sphere,
Unto the which all ye shall come

That live well before the day of doom. Doctor.60 This moral men may have in

mind; Ye hearers, take it of worth, old and

young, And forsake Pride, for he deceiveth you

in the end,
And remember Beauty, Five-wits,

Strength, and Discretion,
They all at the last do Everyman for-

Save his Good-Deeds, there doth he take.
But beware, and they be small
Before God, he hath no lielp at all.
None excuse may be there for Everyman.

shall go;

But not yet for no manner of danger. Every. Gramercy, Knowledge, with all my

heart. Know. Nay, yet I will not from hence

depart, Till I see where ye shall be come. Erery. Methink, alas, that I must be gone,

To make my reckoning and my debts pay, For I see my time is nigh spent away. Take example, all ye that this do hear or


How they that I love best do forsake me, Except my Good-Deeds that bideth truly.

60 cf. note on Doctor at end of Abraham and Isaac.


Alas, how shall he do then?
For after death amends may no

make, For then mercy and pity do him forsake. If his reckoning be not clear when he

High in heaven he shall be crowned; Unto which place God bring us all

thither, That we may live body and soul together. Thereto help the Trinity! Amen, say ye, for saint charity.

doth come,


God will sayIte maledicti in ignem

æternum. And he that hath his account whole and








John Lyly (c. 1554-1606), a Kentishman, but in manner patterned on the tragedies of educated at Oxford (B.A. 1573; M.A. 1575), Seneca. The writers of the old didactic made a great reputation with his didactic drama had vigor and sincerity and strong romance Euphues : the Anatomy of Wit, 1579, emotional appeal, but they had no master but and its sequel Euphues and his England, experience, no critical faculty, low artistic 1580, which established in popular favor the standards. To give it a permanent value the artificial prose style called Euphuism. About English drama needed conscious artists with 1530 was acted his first play, Alexander and professional pride and technical training. Campaspe, and he continued to write for the After some decades of experimental work like stage for some fifteen years. He applied for that named above, such an artist appeared in the Mastership of the Revels, but failed to the person of Lyly. win the post. Between 1589 and 1601 he was Lyly's university education and his cona member of four parliaments. His impor- nection with the court determined the style tance in English literature lies in his con- of his work. All but one of his eight plays tributions to the development of prose style employ classical material, and that one is and of refined comedy.

done in the manner of Latin comedy. They

are the work of a clever young college man, By the time that John Lyly inaugurated, fired with enthusiasm by his reading of with Alexander and Campaspe, the great

classical myth and Latin comedy, delighting period of Elizabethan drama, the leaven of in his already established reputation as a the Renascence had been at work in England witty master of prose, and ambitious to gain for three quarters of a century. Although court favor. Edward Blount, who published the miracle play reached its full develop- six of Lyly's plays in 1632, called them ment quite unaffected by the new learning,

Court Comedies," and the term was well the morality and the secular interlude (the chosen. They were well adapted to appeal latter practised by John Heywood to Elizabeth, learned, pleasure-loving, avid of between 1520 and 1540), however vernacular flattery, and to her brilliant group of courthey may be in form and spirit, show that tiers. Three of them deal in thinly veiled althe English drama was responding to influ- lusion with matters of court gossip: Endimences from abroad. Both at court, where ion with the relations of Elizabeth with Mary, humanism took hold early and where transla- Queen of Scots, and her son James; Sapho tions of Latin comedy were actually per- and Phao with the Duc d'Alençon's vain efformed before 1525, and in the schools and fort to win Elizabeth's hand in marriage; colleges, where the plays of Plautus and Ter- Midas with Philip of Spain and his ambition homely figures like the village wise-woman, neighbor Memphio, and entrusts the managethe hackneyman, and the fiddlers, add a pleas- ment of the affair to Riscio. In scene three ant touch of realism. In structure, however, Prisius and Sperantus agree that their chilthe play is obviously modeled upon the dren must not marry, and the plan of SperTerentian comedy. No direct source has been antus to marry his son Candius to Stellio's found; indeed, the balanced complication of daughter finds correspondence in the plan of plot is more suggestive of invention than of Prisius to marry his daughter Livia to Memborrowing. But the material, love-plots of phio's son. The love-scene between Candius children against their parents, aided by rog- and Livia is witnessed by the fathers, who uish servants, and the solution, by revela- cap the lovers' speeches with antiphonal comtion of a long-concealed substitution of one ments, and each of whom, after disclosing pair of children for another, are reminiscent himself, dismisses his offspring with a long of Latin comedy. Then, too, in its approxi- reproof. In the first scene of act two mation to the unities of time, place, and Dromio and Riscio echo each other's very action, the play shows Lyly's classical train- words as they reveal the parts they are to ing; although the theory of the unities was play, while Halfpenny and Lucio are no first formulated by the Italian critic Castel- sooner desired than they appear, and the four vetro in 1570, it is based on the usual prac- depart into the tavern to lay out their camtice of the Greek and Roman dramatists. paign of cozenage. The scene following preThe time is limited to two days in all, a sents the four scheming fathers entering reasonably close approach to the norm of severally in search of their respective servLatin comedy. Unity of place is strictly ob- ants, and, after soliloquies of one pattern, served, all the action occurring in an open disappearing into the tavern door which has square, about which are located the dwell already welcomed the boys. Like the Euings of the chief characters and the tavern. phuistic sentence, nothing could be more polThe only episode which can be objected to as ished in its way, or more artificial. in any way extraneous is the comic business The double disguising in act four Lyly of the hackneyman's suit against Dromio, brings off with fair success. The approval surely no very serious interruption of the of the betrothal of Candius and Livia by main action. As an early example, then, of their fathers, the latter under the impresclassical method applied to English stuff, the sion that they are witnessing the plighting play is historically important.

were studied, acted, and used for to win back England for Catholicism. Three models, the rediscovered classics inspired others are pastoral comedies, using mythologcourt entertainers and pedagogues to adapta- ical story and figures, and adroitly flattertion and imitation. To Nicholas Udall be- ing the Queen. Alexander and Campaspe, longs the honor of writing, probably during presenting a romantic, pseudo-historical epihis term of mastership at Eton, 1534-41, the sode in the life of Alexander the Great, is first regular English comedy, Ralph Roister seemingly without ulterior purpose, as is the Doister. In this play Udall, adapting the rustic farce-comedy, Mother Bombie. AllusMiles Gloriosus of Plautus to English life, ive, witty, reflecting in tone the politeness of brings to comedy a sense of form lacking in court manners, these plays were admirably miracle, morality, and interlude. Even so adapted for their time and audience, and native a product as Gammer Gurton's Needle, justify Lyly's reputation as our first dram1552–3, a farce comedy of village life straight atist to write plays of real artistic value. from the soil, was written by a fellow of The play which follows is unique in Lyly's Christ Church, Oxford, and exhibits in its work in that it presents English life and division into acts and scenes the tendency to English people unhampered by mythological regularization. Tragedy, likewise, felt the accessories. The scene is laid in Rochester, classic influence: Gorboduc, 1562, is our first in Lyly's own county of Kent. The occaregular tragedy, English in subject matter, sional local allusions and the introduction of


of Accius and Silena, is truly comic and Mother Bombie is the most complicated in well managed. The corresponding situation, structure of Lyly's plays. There are three which brings the climax of the complication main lines of action the love-affair of in the unmasking of Accius and Silena by Candius and Livia, opposed by their parents their fathers is almost too intricate to be and forwarded by the pages; the proposed quite effective; Lyly evades rather than matches between Candius and Silena on the solves his difficulty by huddling his main one hand, and Accius and Livia on the other, group off the stage before he has begun to furthered by the parents, real or supposed, get out of the situation all the fun there thwarted by the pages, and nearly resulting is in it. The dénouement is brought about, in the betrothal of Accius and Silena; the as usual with Lyly, in brusk and mechanilove-story of Mæstius and Serena, appar- cal fashion; here the confession of Vicinia ently hopeless of fulfilment, but ending hap- corresponds to the oracle which brings the pily in the revelation that they are not solution in the three allegorical plays, and brother and sister, a discovery which legiti- to the deus ex machina of the pastoral mizes their union and renders impossible that comedies. of the foolish children. The tangling of Lyly's curious method of group rather than these threads is done with no small skill, but individual characterization is well exemplithe complication would be dillicult for an fied in Mother Bombie. Here we have four audience to follow were it not for the con- old men, four knavish pages, three young stant comments on the situation of the mo- couples, three fiddlers, three village types, two ment that Lyly puts into the mouths of the

The groups are somewhat disactors. Soliloquy and aside are used to their tinguished one from another, but inside the full capacity. The plotting is mechanical group distinction is almost lacking. Memeven to the paralleling of one scene by another phio and Stellio are rich, Prisius and Sperin a manner recalling the use of balance and antus are poor; their occupations vary; but antithesis in one of Lyly's Euphuistic sen- beyond these trivial differences they all act tences. The first five scenes will serve for and speak alike. The same is true of the illustration. In scene one Memphio informs pages, except that, as is customary in plays his servant Dromio of his desire to match his written for boys to perform, the sharpest foolish son Accius to the daughter of his wit is given to the smallest boy, in this neighbor Stellio, and bids Dromio set about case Halfpenny. Such lack of individuality the matter. In scene two Stellio informs his makes us feel about Lyly's people that they servant Riscio of his desire to match his

old women.

are puppets cleverly manipulated, not well foolish daughter Silena to the son of his rounded human beings. Candius and Livia,

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