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ings, VI. 162. Of travelling, and
women in, VII. 359. Interest taken
in American affairs in, 470. Com
missioners to, appointed by Congress,
VIII 190. Supplies of military stores
furnished by, 191. Her conduct in
regard to the United States, 235.
Remarks on the treaty of commerce
with, 239. War of England with,
would be fatal to the reconciliation
of the former with America, 253.
Her good faith commended, 251. War
between England and, 293. Mr. Ad-
ams's view of her faith, 324. Alli-
ance of the United States with, an
obstacle to peace with Great Britain,
312. Objections to quitting the al-
liance with, 316. Character of the
people of, 327. That a truce between
Great Britain and the United States
would be for her interest, 332. Of a
projected invasion of England by, 379.
Of the aid given to the United States
by, 428. Importance of the alliance
with, 439. American feeling towards,
479. Of the aid furnished by, to
meet the drafts of Congress, 499. In-
structions to Franklin to procure a
further loan in, 526. Further loan
made by, to the United States, IX. 1.
Declines the mediation of Russia and
Austria, 4. Of supplies to the United
States by, 32. Advantage to, of em-
ploying a large naval force in this
country, 100. Feeling in America
towards, 104. Her concurrence ne-
cessary in the negotiations for peace,
141. Relations of the United States
with, 174. The United States not to
treat without, 203. Great Britain
proposes a separate treaty with, 204.
Canada offered to, to induce her to
treat, 210. Answer of the court of,
to the offer, 210, 213. Her aid to the
United States for 1782, 260. No aid
given to the United States by, till
their independence was declared, 274.
Of the obligations of gratitude for
her aid, 281. Debt of the United
States to, 383. Substance of the pre-
liminary articles of peace between
Great Britain and, 442. Application
of Robert Morris to, for a loan, 445.
Preliminary articles of peace signed
between Great Britain, Spain, and,
473. Her good faith in reference to
the treaty, 533. Her financial diffi-
culties, X. 28. Placed by the United
States on the most favorable footing
in regard to commerce, 138. State
of affairs in, in 1787, 318. In 1788,
355. Revolutionary proceedings and
distracted state of affairs in, in 1789,
387, 409.

FRANCIS, JOHN W., his Life of Colden
cited, VI. 18, 19.
FRANKLIN, ABIAH, mother of Benjamin,
1.7, 13. Her death, VII. 58.

His Life. Good fortune which ac-
companied him through life, I. 2. Res-
idence of his ancestors, 3. His resem-
blance in character to one of his un-
cles, 5. His second cousin Samuel
Franklin, 6. Marriage of his father, 7.
His birth, 8. His occupations in child-
hood, 10. Account of his father, 11.
Death of his parents, and their monu-
ment, 14. His early reading, 15. His
ballads, 16. Intimacy with John Col
lins, 17. Reads the Spectator, 18. Re-
sorts to a system of vegetable diet, 19.
Becomes fond of argument, 21. Writes
for his brother's newspaper, 23. Ex-
amined before the Council for a pub-
lication offensive to the Assembly, 24.
Determines to leave his brother, 27
Goes to New York, 28. Accident on
his journey to Philadelphia, 30. Ar-
rives in that city, 33. Visits Andrew
Bradford, the printer, 35. Lodges
with Mr. Read, 37. Is advised by
Sir W. Keith to set up in Philadel-
phia, 38. Returns to Boston, 39. Sir
W. Keith's proposal declined by his
father, 40. Who consents to his re-
turn to Philadelphia, 41. Visits Gov-
ernor Burnet of New York, 43. Is
promised assistance by Sir W. Keith,
45. Abandons the use of animal food,
47. Of his associates, Osborne, Wat-
son, Ralph, 48. Their exercises in
composition, 49. Determines, by the
advice of Keith, to visit England, 52.
Sails for London, 53. Discovers that
he has been deceived by Keith, 55.
Being without money engages to work
for Palmer, a printer, 56. Prints a
tract upon Liberty and Necessity,
Pleasure and Pain, 57. Frequents a
club, consisting of Dr. Mandeville
and others, 57. Disagrees with, and
separates from Ralph, and removes to
Watts's printing office, 59. His tem-
perate habits, 59. Mode of living, 61.
His skill in swimming, 63. Engages
in mercantile business with Mr. Den-
ham, 65. Returns to Philadelphia, 67.
His plans of business broken off by
the death of Mr. Denham, 68. En-
gages to superintend Keimer's print-
ing establishment, 69. Is ill treated
by Keimer, 71. And separates from
him, 72. Engraves the plates for
New Jersey paper money, and prints
the bills, 73. His moral and reli-
gious views, 74. His new version of
the Lord's Prayer, 77. Enters into

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partnership with Hugh Meredith, 77.
Forms the Junto, 81. Writes the
Busy Body, 84. Anecdote showing
his independence as an editor, 85.
His separation from Meredith, 89.
Writes a pamphlet on paper curren-
cy, 91. Opens a stationer's shop, 92.
His attention to business, 93. Mar-
ries Miss Read, 96. His agency in
establishing the Philadelphia Library,
99. Mode of obtaining subscriptions
for it, 101. Anecdote of the silver
spoon and China bowl, 102. His re-
ligious sentiments, 103. Proposes to
arrive at moral perfection, 105. His
list of the virtues, 106. Resolves to
give attention to them in succession,
109. His difficulty in practising that
of order, 113. His project of a work
to be entitled, The Art of Virtue, 115.
Proposes to raise a united party for
virtue, 119. Publishes Poor Richard's
Almanac, 121. His mode of conduct-
ing his newspaper, 123. Engages in
a controversy respecting Hemphill, a
preacher, 125. Studies the French
and Italian languages, 126; and the
Spanish, 127. Visits Boston, 128.
Extension of the Junto, 129. Is ap-
pointed postmaster of Philadelphia,
131. Proposes an improvement in
the city watch, and establishes a fire
company, 133. Becomes intimate
with Whitefield, 136. Forms part-
nerships in the printing business, 142.
Proposes a Philosophical Society, 144.
His agency in providing means of de-
fence in the Spanish war, 144. Forms
an association for that purpose, 145.
His invention of a fireplace, 156. His
Proposal relating to the Education of
Youth, 158. Establishes an Academy,
159. Becomes one of the trustees,
160. Forms a partnership with David
Hall, 161. His electrical experiments,
162. Is chosen a member of the As-
sembly, 162. Is appointed a cominis-
sioner for making a treaty with the
Indians, 163. His agency in estab-
lishing the Pennsylvania Hospital,
164. His advice to Gilbert Tennent,
167. Suggests plans for cleaning, pav-
ing, and lighting the streets of Phila-
delphia, 163, 169; and for cleaning
those of London, 170. Is appointed
post master-general for America, 175.
Attends the general convention at
Albany, as a delegate, 176. Proposes
a plan of union of the colonies, 177.
Has an interview with Governor Shir-
ley, 178. Assists Mr. Quincy in pro-
curing aids for New England, 181.
Visits General Braddock's army, 183.
Procures horses and wagons for the

army, 184. His services commended
by Braddock, but ill rewarded, 193.
Engages in forming a society for the
relief and instruction of Germans in

Pennsylvania, 195. Is appointed a
commissioner for appropriating the
public money for military defence,
197. Is commissioned to take charge
of the frontier, and erect a line of
forts, 197. Marches with troops to
fulfil this commission, 198. His op-
erations at Gnadenhutten, 199. Be-
comes acquainted with the Moravians
at Bethlehem, 203. Returns to Phila-
delphia, and is chosen colonel of a
regiment, 204. Declines accepting
the Governor's proposal to conduct an
expedition against Fort Duquesne,
207. Account of his electrical exper-
iments, 208. Is elected a member
of the Royal Society, 212. Receives
the Copley medal, 213. His conver-
sations with Governor Denny, 214. Is
deputed by the Assembly to present a
petition to the King, and to act in
England as the agent of Pennsylva-
nia, 216. His interview with Lord
Loudoun, 216. Sails from New York,
222. His account of the voyage, 223.
Arrives in England, 226. Object of
his agency in England, 232. Peter
Collinson and Mrs. Stevenson, 233.
Mr. Strahan and Governor Shirley,
234. Begins the business of his mis-
sion, 235. Refutes charges that had
been made against Pennsylvania, 237.
Becomes acquainted with Basker-
ville, 242. Advises the conquest of
Canada, 248. Visits Scotland, and
receives the degree of Doctor of Laws,
249. Gives to Lord Kames a copy
of the Parable against Persecution,
250. Remarks on the authorship of
that piece, 251. Business of his agen-
cy brought to a successful issue, 253.
Receives public money for Pennsyl
vania, 258. Tour through Holland
and Flanders, 259. Experiments on
the tourmalin, 259; on evaporation,
260. His observations and theory of
northeast storms, 262. Invents the
Armonica, 263. The degree of Doc-
tor of Laws conferred upon him at
Oxford, 267. Sails from England and
arrives at Philadelphia, 269. Travels
through the northern colonies, 271.
Disputes between the Assembly and
governor, 280. Franklin writes on
the subject, 282. Chosen speaker of
the Assembly, 283. Appointed agent
to go to England, and solicit a change
of government, 285. Arrives in Eng-
land, 289. Opposes the Stamp Act,
294. Examined before Parliament on

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Canada, 403. On the committee
for drafting the Declaration of In-
dependence, 406. Interview with
Lord Howe on Staten Island, 414.
Appointed one of the commissioners
to the Court of France, 416. Arrives
at Nantes, 418; at Paris, 419. Im-
pression produced by his arrival in
France, 420. Audience of Count de
Vergennes, 422. Purchases arms and
military supplies for Congress, 424.
Troublesome applications of foreign
officers, 426. Recommends the Mar-
quis de Lafayette, 428. Treaties of
amity and alliance between France
and the United States, 429. Intro-
duced to the King, 434. Secret ad-
vances made to Franklin for effecting
a reconciliation between England and
the United States; Hutton, Pulteney,
Hartley, 439. Numerous personal
friends; interview with Voltaire, 445.
Enmity of Arthur Lee to Franklin,
and its causes, 447; of Ralph Izard,
451. Arts of his enemies in Congress,
452. Visited by Sir William Jones,
454. Instructs the American cruisers
not to molest Captain Cook's vessel,
455. Paul Jones, 456. Mr. Vaugh-
an's edition of his writings, 457. As-
sists in procuring a French army to
be sent to the United States, 460. His
opinion of privateering, 461. His
mode of transacting affairs with the
French Court, 464. Burdened with
the concerns of public vessels, 467.
Solicits his recall, 468. His opinion of
the alliance with France, 471. His per-
sonal friends at Passy, 473. Negotia-
tions for peace, 474. Objects to Mr.
Grenville's commission, 476. Proposes
articles of a treaty to Mr. Oswald, 479.
Progress of the negotiation, 481. Fish-
eries, 484. Loyalists, 485. Treaty
signed, 488. American commissioners
sign the treaty without the knowledge
of the French court, 489. Count de
Vergennes's letter on the subject, 490.
Franklin's reasons, 496. Error cor-
rected, 497. Contract respecting loans,
498. Definitive treaty signed, 502.
One of the commissioners appointed
by the King of France to investigate
animal magnetism, 503. Treaty with
Prussia, 506. Leaves Passy, 508.
Sails for America, 509. Chosen Pres-
ident of Pennsylvania, 512. Member
of the Convention for forming the
Constitution of the United States, 513.
His religious opinions, 515. Requests
Congress to settle his accounts, 525.
His last illness and death, 529. Pro-
ceedings of Congress on the occasion,
533, 592.


the subject of its repeal, 298. Writes
on political affairs, 312. Appointed
agent for Georgia, 316. His opinion
of the Farmer's Letters, 317. Mem-
ber of numerous societies, 319. Pro-
motes the culture of silk, 319. On a
committee for protecting the Cathe-
dral of St. Paul's from lightning, 321.
Appointed agent for New Jersey,
Appointed agent for Massachu-
setts, 328. Singular interview with
Lord Hillsborough, 329. Journey to
the North of England, Ireland, and
Scotland; Priestley, Percival, Dar-
win, Kippis, Price, 331. Meets Lord
Hillsborough in Ireland, 332. Dr.
Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph, 335.
Singular conduct of Lord Hillsbor-
ough, 338. Writes an elaborate paper
in favor of Walpole's Grant, 340. On
a committee for examining the Pow-
der Magazines at Purfleet, 342. Con-
troversy about pointed and blunt con-
ductors, 343. Interviews with Lord
Dartmouth, 345. Abridges the Book
of Common Prayer, 352. Experiments
to show the effect of oil in stilling
waves, 353. Transmits Hutchinson's
letters to Massachusetts, 356. Pro-
ceedings of the Assembly concerning
them, 360. Presents the petition for
the removal of Hutchinson, 363. Case
heard before the Privy Council, 365.
Intercourse with Josiah Quincy, Jr.,
372. Death of his wife, 373. Family
incidents and relations, 274. Presents
the petition of the first Continental
Congress to the King, 377. Visits
Lord Chatham at Hayes, 379. Plays
at chess with a sister of Lord Howe,
380. Dr. Fothergill and Mr. Barclay
consult him on the terms of a recon-
ciliation between the two countries,
381. Draws up a paper containing
his ideas of the subject, 382. His
paper shown to the ministers, 383.
Requested by Lord Chatham to be
present when he offered a motion in
the House of Lords relating to Amer-
ica, 385. Assists Lord Chatham in
preparing a plan of reconciliation,
386. Chatham's compliment to him
in a speech in the House of Lords,
387. Negotiation continued, 389. Is
unsuccessful, 390. Sails for America,
391. Chosen a member of the Con-
tinental Congress, 393. Drafts a plan
of Confederation, 397. Appointed
Postmaster-general, 398. Member of
the Secret Committee, 399. One
of the commissioners to the army
at Cambridge, 400. Chosen a mem-
ber of the Assembly of Pennsylvania,
401. One of the commissioners to

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His opinions, and facts relating to him.
Origin of the Junto, II. 9. Account
of the origin of the Busy Body, 13.
His account of the Way to Wealth, 92.
Its extraordinary circulation, 93. Ac-
count of his Parable against Persecu-
tion, 118 Paper, a Poem, his author-
ship of it doubtful, 161. His Baga-
telles, 164. Humorous Dialogue be-
tween him and the Gout, 194. His
fondness for reading about China, 241.
His authorship of the Inquiry into
the Nature and Necessity of a Paper
Currency, 254. Doubts as to his au-
thorship of the Essays on Govern-
ment, 278. Origin and character of

the Remarks and Facts relative to the
American Paper Money, 340. Excel-
lence of his article on the Price of
Corn and the Management of the Poor,
360. Account of his essay on the
Slave-Trade, 517. Origin of his Plain
Truth, III. 1 Of the Papers relating
to a Plan of Union of the Colonies, 22.
The plan drawn by him and accept-
ed, 24. Evidence that his attention
had been for some time turned to the
subject, 25. Account of the origin
of his Letters to Governor Shirley,
56. No change in his opinions rela-
tive to the power of Parliament over
the colonies, 67. His view as to the
expediency of establishing colonies
beyond the Alleganies, 69. Circum-
stances under which his Militia Bill
was drawn and passed, 78. Interest
taken by him in the controversies
between the proprietary governors
and the Assemblies, 108. As to his
authorship of the Historical Review
of the Constitution and Government
of Pennsylvania, 103. His remarks
on a Protest against his Appointment
as Agent of Pennsylvania, IV. 143.
Vindication of his conduct as agent,
144. His relations with the Proprie-
tors, 150. Report in the Assembly on
his accounts, 153. His Examination
before the House of Commons relative
to the Repeal of the Stamp Act, 161.
His views of Pownall's scheme, for
an equal communication of rights
and privileges to America, 201. His
Answer to Strahan's Queries, rel-
ative to American Affairs, 261. Not
the author of the Boston Report in
1772, 381. Account of transactions
relative to the Hutchinson Letters,
405, 409. Manner in which the letters
came to his possession, 411. And in
which they were transmitted to this
country, 412. Acknowledges himself
responsible for obtaining and transmit-
ting them, 435. Whately's chancery

suit against him, 437. His answer to
the bill in equity, 438. Not in fault in
regard to the duel between Temple
and Whately, 446. Is attacked by
Wedderburn before the Privy Council,
447. His deineanor on that occasion,
452, 453. Removed from his office of
deputy postmaster-general, 455. De-
mands an explanation from Dean
Tucker of the charge, that he applied
for the place of distributor of stamps,
519. Calls for a detailed statement
of the charge, 520. The charge stated,
521. And explained by him, 522.
His efforts to bring about a reconcili
ation between Great Britain and the
colonies, V. 3. His first interview
with Lord Chatham, 5. Conversation
with David Barclay on the subject of
reconciliation, 8. With Mrs. Howe
and Dr. Fothergill, 10. His Hints for
conversation on the terms of union,
12. Interview with Lord Howe, 29.
Their conference respecting an ad-
justment of the differences between
the two countries, 30. His sketch of
a plan of reconciliation, drawn at the
request of Lord Howe, 38. His Notes
for Discourse with Lord Chatham, re-
lative to his plan of accommodation,
49. Chatham's panegyric on him, in
the House of Lords, 53. His con-
versation with Lord Hyde, 74. Pro-
poses Articles of Confederation and
Perpetual Union, in General Congress,
91. His Correspondence and Inter-
view with Lord Howe, 97. Acknowl-
edgment to, for passports granted to
Moravian vessels and Captain Cook,
122. Public Addresses to, and his An-
swers, 137. His Speech in the Con-
vention, on Salaries, 144; on the Pro-
portion between Representation and
Votes, 149. His Motion for Prayers,
153. Speech at the Conclusion of its
Deliberations, 155. Manner in which
his attention was drawn to the subject
of electricity and lightning, 173. Es-
tablishes their identity, 174. His ex-
periments successfully repeated in
Europe, 176. Jealousy of him, and
attempt to transfer the honor of the
discovery to Abbé Nollet, 176 Priest-
ley's notice of his discoveries, 179.
Accident while making an electrical
experiment. 255. Offers to serve as
secretary of a Philosophical Society,
VI. 17. Logan's account of him in
1750. Compliment paid to his phi
losophical writings by the King of
France, 162. His observations in re-
ply to Mr. Todd, 174; to Mr. Col-
den, 180. His account of a whirlwind
in Maryland, 201. His opinion of

His remarks on the proposition of M.
de Weissenstein, 278 His mode of
living in France, 313. Receives his
credentials as minister plenipotentia
ry and is presented to the King, 350.
His situation in France, 401. Re-
quests permission to return from
France, IX. 5. His remarks upon his
enemies, 21. Congress refuse to ac-
cept his resignation, 71. His inter-
view with Count de Vergennes, 76.
Is appointed a commissioner for nego-
tiating peace, 77. Loss of his papers
deposited with Mr. Galloway, 78.
His remarks to Messrs. Kornmann
relative to a claim of relationship. 92.
His remarks on M. de Neufville's
scheme of a loan, 107. Declines to
open negotiations without the con-
currence of France, 141. His dith-
culty in meeting the drafts of Con-
gress, 146. His remarks on the con-
duct of Deane, 177. His Journal of
the Negotiation for Peace, 238. His
conversation with Mr. Oswald, 243;
whom he introduces to Count de
Vergennes, 246. Accompanies Mr.
Grenville on an interview with that
minister, 273. Desires that Mr. Os-
wald may be sent to treat, 280. An-
ecdote respecting the visiting card
of Prince Bariatinski and the Count
du Nord, 285. Visits the Spanish
ambassador with Mr. Jav, 350. Com-
plains of the British delay in open-
ing the negotiation, 360. Justifies
the proceedings in regard to Captain
Asgill, 375. Count de Vergennes
complains to him, that the prelimina..
ries between the British commission-
ers had been concluded without com.
munication with the French cabinet,
449. His reply, 450. Exchanges full
powers with the Swedish ambassador,
460. Declines visiting England, 475.
Justifies the signing of the treaty
without communication with the
French court, 533. His comment
on the report, that he did not oppose
the hostile views of France relative
to the fisheries and boundaries of the
United States, in concluding the
treaty, X. 6, 10. Asks to be recalled
from France, 49. Replies to the ob
jection of a defect of form in ratifying
the treaty, 97. Is elected a member of
the Royal Academy of History at Ma-
drid, 104. His relations with his son,
121. His present to the town of
Franklin, 158. Takes leave of Count
de Vergennes, 166. His charges as
minister plenipotentiary, 184. Leaves
Passy for Havre, 201. Of his Abridg
ment of the Book of Common Prayer,

Priestley's philosophical experiments,
410. His religious opinions, VII. 6,
8. Part taken by him, in the associa-
tion for the defence of Pennsylvania,
22. His plan of retiring from busi-
ness and public employments, 35.
Notice of his visit to New England,
77. His visit and return, 85. Mor-
tality in his family, 114. Is elected
a member of the Society for the En-
couragement of Arts, Manufactures,
&c., 124. Is appointed commission-
er to England, 130. His arrival in
London, and illness, 149. Is injured
by a fall, 257. His second mission to
England, 266. His arrival, 283. Re-
turn to America, 292. Is elected
Speaker of the Assembly, 294. Ac-
count of the descendants of his grand-
father in England, 326. His family
connexions in England, 348. Visits
France, 358. Attempt to remove him
from his place of deputy postmaster-
general, 405. State of his health in
1762, 424. Respecting the report of
his willingness to accept office under
the British government, 443. His
appointment and instructions as agent
for New Jersey, 460. Appointed agent
for Massachusetts, 490, 493. His sen-
timents in regard to resigning his
place in the postoffice, 490, 493. Of-
fence taken at some of his letters to
America, sent back to England, 507.
His interview with Lord Hillsborough
on the subject of his appointment as
agent, 509. His agency in procuring
Walpole's Grant, VIII. 1. His agree-
able situation in Europe, 15. Is elect-
ed into the Royal Academy in Paris,
13. His conversation with Lord Dart-
mouth, 43. Vindicates his conduct
as agent of Massachusetts, 55. Sug-
gests a mode of printing on earth-
en ware, 94. Is dismissed from his
office of deputy postmaster-general,
113. His treatment in England in
consequence of his transmitting the
Hutchinson Letters, 117. French edi-
tion of his writings mentioned, 117.
His portrait, by Chamberlin, 118.
Abused by his enemies, 136. Is ap-
pointed by Congress one of the com-
missioners to Canada, 178. Commis-
sioner and afterwards minister plenipo-
tentiary to France, 190. His descrip-
tion of his own person, 202. Purposes
for which he was sent to France, 203.
Is commissioned to treat with Spain,
205. His remarks respecting Arthur
Lee's conduct in regard to the com-
missioners' accounts, 260. Refuses to
accede to Lee's demand respecting
drafts on the American banker, 272.

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