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Criminal law, its impolitic severity, II.


CROGHAN, Colonel, his agency in re-
gard to Walpole's Grant, VII. 355.
Crown Officers, their independence of
the people a violation of the colonial
charters, VII. 529.

CUMBERLAND, Duke of, Governor Pow-
nall's memorial to, respecting barrier
colonies, III. 69.

Currency, on the importance of estab-
lishing a, in America, VII. 321. Pro-
clamation of Queen Anne for pro-
ducing uniformity in the, VIII. 115.
See Paper Money.
CUSHING, THOMAS, his letters to Frank-
lin and Dr. Cooper quoted, IV. 419.
Speaker of the Assembly of Massa-
chusetts, VIII. 492.

Customs, objectionable method of col-
lecting, in America, VII. 521.


Daggestans, their principle in regard to
hospitality, IV. 66.
DALIBARD, translates Franklin's Ex-
periments and Observations on Elec-
tricity into French, V. 175. Repeats
some experiments with success, 176.
His account of an electrical experi-
ment at Marly, 283.
D'ALLONE, his charities, VII. 202.
DALRYMPLE, SIR JOHN, his discovery
of classical writings in the Escurial
library, VIII. 470. His memorial
mentioned, 472; and given at length,
DALRYMPLE, his plan prepared in con-
cert with Franklin, for benefiting dis-
tant, unprovided countries, II. 377.
DAMPIER, extract from the Voyages of,
on the subject of water-spouts, VI.
183. And on the customs the peo-
ple of Mindanoo, 393.
DANA, FRANCIS, his conference with
Count de Vergennes relative to his
mission to St. Petersburgh, IX. 17.
DARTMOUTH, Lord, his liberal disposi-
tion towards the colonists, IV. 432.
Franklin's proposed memorial to, V.
79. Succeeds Lord Hillsborough; his
disposition toward the colonies, VIII.
11, 18, 19. Petition to the King pre-
sented to, 22. Franklin's conversa-
tion with, respecting it, 25. Another
conversation with, on American affairs,
28. General change of feeling in re-
gard to, 36. His desire to heal the
difficulties, 38. Details of a conver-
sation between Franklin and, 43. Pre-
sents the petition to the King, 47.
Petition for the removal of Hutchinson
and Oliver presented by, 100.

DARWIN, ERASMUS, account of his in-
terview with Franklin, VI. 410.
DAVENPORT, SARAH, notice of her
death, VII. 4.

DAVY, SIR HUMPHREY, his remarks on
Franklin's philosophical writings, I.


Dead Bodies, of infection retained in,
after sepulture, VI. 433.
DEANE, SILAS, is appointed agent of
the United States in France, and after-
wards a commissioner, VIII. 190.
Commended by Franklin, 255. Is in-
structed to communicate with Dr.
Bancroft, 266. Proceedings of Con-
gress in reference to, 283. Allusion
to the charge affecting his integrity,
399. His dissatisfaction and cbjec-
tionable conduct, IX. 177.
Death, observations on, VII. 113.
DE BERDT, is recognised as agent of
Massachusetts, IV. 504.
DEEORRE, Major, VIII. 391.
Debt, catechism relative to the British
National, V. 120.
Declamation, importance of studying
the art of public, VII. 55.
Dedications, uselessness of, IX. 232.
Delaware Counties, Secretary Logan's
letter on the proprietary right to the
government of the three, III. 573.
Delaware Indians, anxiety of the Gov-
ernor of Pennsylvania to involve the
province in war with the, III. 471.
Delaware River, respecting fortifications
on the, VII. 28. Lottery for the pur-
pose of erecting them, 32.
DELFINO, Chevalier, communicates to
Franklin his election as a member of
the Academy of Arts and Sciences in
Padua, IX. 197.

DE LOR, repeats the electrical experi-
ments of Franklin, V. 176.
Denmark, use of stoves in, VI. 53.
Seizure of American prizes in Nor
way, by officers of, VIII. 407, 425,
433. Explanation of it, 462.
capture of American vessels referred
to, IX. 171. Courtesy of the King
to Franklin, 286. Of a treaty of com-
merce between the United States and,
487, 510. Her seizure of American
vessels, 511. Of a treaty with, 529,
537. Progress of the treaty, X. 29.
DENNY, WILLIAM, Governor of Penn-
sylvania, his conversations with Frank
lin, 1. 214. Is well received, III. 506.
Continues the system of his predeces-
sor, 507. Declares his inability to
recede from the proprietary instruc-
tions, 517. Asks a conference with
the Assembly relative to a bill for sup-
plies, 518. His objections, 519. Re-
jects the bill, 524. Induces the As-

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strata of the, 212. Cooling of its sur-
face by evaporation, 216. Suggestion
of Franklin as to its conformation, 443.
Its magnetic character, 445. Que-
ries on the theory of the, 575.
Earthquakes, opinion of the learned
as to the cause of, VI. 1. That the
cause of, is the same with that of
thunder and lightning, 3. Dr. Wood-
ward's theory of, 4. Mode of making
artificial, 8. Various kinds of, 9. Of
one in Sicily, 10. In Jamaica, 11.
East, mode in which the trade of the,
was once carried on, IV. 30.
East India Company, its pecuniary dif-
ficulties, VIII. 24, 29. Its distress,
33, 34.

Easton, account of a conference with
the Indians at, VII. 125.
Economical Project for employing sun-
shine instead of candles, in the city
of Paris, II. 227.
Economy in expenditure, importance
of, VII. 346.

Economy of Life, Essays on the, II. 1.
Ecton, birthplace of Franklin's father,
his visit to, VII. 178.

Edict by the King of Prussia, ironical,
IV. 399. Again, VIII. 90, 91.
Edict of Nantz, effect of the revoca-
tion of the, IV. 33.

Edinburgh Courant, passages from the,
relating to emigration, examined, IV.


Education, its value in promoting the
strength and virtue of a community,
VII. 48. Remarks on Dr. Smith's
Scheme of, 65.
EDWARDS, DAVID, his death, VII.


Mode of firing gunpowder by, 225
Opinions and conjectures concerning
the properties of the electrical matter,
227. Pernicious effects of the elec-
trical fluid, 228. Suggestions respect-
ing the electrical atmosphere, 230.
Similarity of its effects and those of
lightning, 237. Its power in fusing
metals, 238. Accident occurring dur-
ing an experiment in, 255. Unlimit-
ed nature of the force of, 258. Air
a non-conductor of, 261. Experiment
to discover more of the qualities of
262. Its effect in producing mag-
netic virtue, 263. Its presence in the
clouds, 279. Suggestion of a region
of electric fire above our atmosphere,
284. Experiment in, at Marly, 289.
Direction of the fluid, and utility of
rods, 311. Proposed experiment to
measure the velocity of, 316. Some
experiments in, 330. Turkey killed
by, and its effect upon the operator,
346. Points in which it agrees with
lightning, 350. Its effect in cases of
paralysis, 359. Of the tourmalin, 363.
Reason for believing that the air has
its portion of the common stock of,
369. How its density at different
heights may be ascertained, 370. Long
retained by the Leyden bottle, 380.
That heat is produced by, 389. Of
the fogs in Ireland, 409. Various
qualities of, 414. Analogy between
magnetisin and, 450. Apparent pro-
duction of magnetism by, accidental,
451. Of a mode of rendering meat
tender by, 456. Mode of killing ani-
mals by, 457. Effect of a shock of,
on Franklin, 481. Effect of a vacu
um on the passage of, VI. 413.
Electrics contain the greatest quantity
of the fluid, and attract and retain it
longest, V. 242. Difference between,
and non-electrics, 259.

concerning the Revival of Religion in
New England, referred to, VII. 9.
Elective Franchises, enjoyed by the small
Boroughs in England, referred to,

II. 489.

Elements of Criticism, Lord Kames's,
noticed, VI. 263. Again, VII. 241.
Elephants, conjecture as to whether
they are natives of America, VI. 275,
Description of some bones of, 276
ELIOT, JARED, notice of, VI. 79. His
tracts on husbandry referred to, VI.
113. Again, VII. 51. Franklin's
opinion of them, 56.
ELIZABETH, Queen, character of her
government, II. 283. Act of, respect
ing libel, 288.
ELPHINSTON, JOHN, his translation of
the Latin verse, applied by Turgot to
Franklin, VIII. 539.
Emblematical Representation of the
state of Great Britain and her colo-
nies, IV. 456. Alluded to, VII. 313.
EMBSER, Professor, his account of

Electrical Battery, Franklin's construc-
tion of an, V. 202.

Electrical Jars, on the mode of coating,
V. 299.

Electrical Machine, simple and conven-
ient form of an, V. 188. On that
of Mr. Nairn, and its effect on the
eyes of animals killed by it, 479.
Electricity, general account of the
early discoveries of Franklin in, V.
173. Of its identity with lightning,
174. Of ascending thunder, 178.
Explanation of positive and negative,
185. Of the electrical kiss, 187. Of
the Leyden bottle, 196. Qualities of
glass in reference to, 200. Of the
Magical Picture, 203. Explanation
of the causes of thunder-gusts, 211.

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the Bipontine edition of the classics,
IX. 126.
Emigration, effect of the facility of, on
the rate of wages in Europe, II. 443.
To whom it might prove beneficial,
470. Examination of a proposed act
of Parliament for preventing, IV. 458.
No legislation required in reference
to, 461. Nor likely to be effectual,
462. Nor politic, 463. Injustice of
such legislation, 464. From Scotland
to the United States, IX. 486. That
it multiplies instead of diminishing a
nation, X. 131.

EMMONS, NATHANIEL, his discourse on
the present of Franklin to the town
which bears his name, X. 159.
Enabling Act of Parliament alluded to,
IX. 314, 315.

Enemy, on the means of disposing an,
to peace, VII. 216.
England, intelligence of the people of,
VII. 246. Facility of travelling in,
296. Disposition of the people of,
VIII. 177. See Great Britain.
English Language, how to render the
study of it more general, X. 415.
English School, Sketch of an, II. 125.
Engraver, Franklin's remarks to a
French, on a print commemorating
American Independence, VIII. 277.
Enthusiasm, advantages of, VII. 453.
ENVILLE, Duchess d', her death, X. 295.
troduces Mr. Gallatin to Franklin,
VIII. 454.
Ephemera, an Emblem of Human Life,
II. 177. Circumstances under which
it was written, VIII. 473.
Episcopal Church, of the ordination in
England, of American clergy of the,
X. 109. Remarks on the practicabili-
ty and expediency of establishing a
bishop in America, 202.
Essays on Religious and Moral Subjects,
and the Economy of Life, II. 1.
ESTAING, Count d', his military char-
acter, VIII. 306. And judicious con-
duct, 307. His character, 457.
Ether, experiment with, to produce cold
by evaporation, VI. 213.
Europe, opinions in, respecting the
American war,
VIII. 494. Prevail-
ing spirit of liberty in, X. 321.
EVANS, CADWALLADER, promotes the
culture of silk, VII. 454, 485, 512,
527, 535.

EVANS, JOHN, is appointed deputy-gov.
ernor of Pennsylvania, III. 160. At-
tempts to unite the territories and the
province, and disagrees with the As-
sembly, 161. Expresses to the As-
sembly the resentment of the pro-
prietary, 179. Refers to the charter

of privileges as the only rule of gov
ernment, Isl. Protects Logan, the
Secretary, against the Assembly, 185.
EVANS, LEWIS, his map of the middle
colonies referred to, IV. 326. Again,
together with his Essays, VI. 110.
Mentioned, VIII. 125.
Eraperation, of cooling by, V. 379.
Of oil, VI. 129. Production of cold
by, 209. Experiment with ether, for
producing cold by, 213. Cooling of
water by, 214. And of the body, 215.
Surface of the earth and vegetation,
216. Same subject, 255.
Examination of Dr. Franklin, in the
British House of Commons, extracts
from its Journals on the subject, IV.

Exchange, true principles of, II. 199.
On the par of, 400.
Ercise, difference between an, on con-
sumption, and a duty on importation,
IV. 181.

Executive department of the plan of
union in 1754, III. 37.
Exercise, comparative view of various
kinds of, VIII. 12.
Exportation of provisions, difficulties
arising from the act of Pennsylvania,
relative to the, III. 485.
Exports, impolicy of duties on Ameri-
can, IX. 38.


Fahrenheit's thermometer, how grad-
uated, VI. 568.

Fair Play, respecting the French indem-
nity for the brigantine, VIII. 476.
Faith, utility of, VII. 75. Remarks
on, 184.

Famine, provision made in China
against, II. 381.
FARISH, his account of stilling waves
by oil, VI. 355.
Farmer's Letters, quoted, relative to
the carelessness with which acts of
Parliament are passed on the subject
of the colonies, IV. 251. Franklin's
preface to the, 257. Lord Hillsbor-
ough's opinion of the, VII. 391.
FAUCITT, WILLIAM, mentioned, IX.

Felons, on the transportation of, to
America, II. 495.

FENELON, his remark to the Pretender
quoted, II. 279.
Fermentation, generation of wind by,
VI. 196.

Ferers, conjecture respecting the cause
of the cold and hot fits of some, VI. 97.
FEVRE, Franklin's servant, mentioned,
VIII. 173.

the Science of Legislation, X. 233.
His death, 359.
Filosofia Frankliniana, Toderini's ac-
count of, VI. 351.
Finances, American, their condition in
1780, VIII. 460. Remarks on, 507.
Their disordered state in 1781, IX.

FINLEY, President, his experiment,
showing the inflammability of the sur-
face of certain rivers in New Jersey,

VI. 416.

Fire, a cause of earthquakes, VI. 2.
Some of its properties, 37. Certain
phenomena of, 239. On securing
houses from, 332. Construction of
the French houses in this respect,
333. Suggestion that it exists in a
subtile fluid, 454.
Fireplaces, account of the Pennsylva-
nia, invented by Franklin, VI. 35.
Old fashioned, 38. Those designed
to warm the air as it enters the
room, described, 39. Description of
the Pennsylvanian, 44. Manner of
using it, 50.
Fisheries, condition of the, at the close
of the revolutionary war, II. 465.
Mr. Livingston's vindication of the
claim of the United States to the, on
the Banks of Newfoundland, IX. 135.
Of indispensable importance in a
treaty with Great Britain, 381. Dis-
position of Great Britain to cede
them to the United States, 405, 408,

FITCH, JOHN, his steamboat, X. 232.
Certificate of Rittenhouse respecting
it, 233. Again mentioned, 363.
Five Nations, History of the, referred
to, VII. 18.

Fixed Air. See Air.

Flanders, Franklin's tour in, VII. 229.
Flemish Ships, of the capture of, by
American privateers, IX. 368.
FLETCHER, BENJAMIN, is appointed
governor of New York and Pennsyl-
vania, by the same commission, III.
136. His controversy with the As-
sembly of Pennsylvania, 137. Threat-
ens to annex the province to New
York, 139. Admits the principle of
the Quakers upon the subject of bear-
ing arins, 143.

Flies, their tenacity of life, VI. 382.
Flora, representation of Franklin to
the Admiralty court at Cherbourg re-
specting the prize, VIII. 453.
Florida, difficulty of finding settlers
for, IV. 355, Parliamentary grants
for, 369. Government of East and
West, as erected by royal proclama-
tion, 375.

FLORIDA BLANCA, Count de, gives

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FOLGER, PETER, his writings, I. 8, 9.
Food, proper quantity of, II. 86.
Foreign ministers, salaries of, IX. 401.
FORTH, his secret mission, IX. 205.
Fort Pitt, conference with the Indians
at, IV. 345.

Forts, erection of, in the back settle-
ments, an inadequate protection
against the French and Indians, IV.
A few likely to be useful, 15.
Proposal to prevent the erection of, in
the colonies, 21.
FOTHERGILL, JOHN, his conversation
with Franklin on the restoration of
harmony between Great Britain and
the colonies, V. 10. Communicates
to Franklin the result of conferen-
ces upon the Hints for accommoda-
tion, 55. Attends Franklin during
his illness, VII. 150. His account of
Franklin's examination before the
House of Commons, 312. His death
and character, VIII. 529. His ef-
forts to prevent the war with the Uni-
ted States, 532. His character, IX.
493. Dr. Lettsom's Memoirs of, X.

Foundlings, their number in Paris, X.
133. Of hospitals for, 148, 174.
Fox, CHARLES JAMES, Secretary of
State, sends Mr. Grenville to Paris to
arrange the preliminaries of a treaty
of peace, IX. 267. Claims for his
department the power to treat, 336.
Resigns, 360, 365. His coalition with
Lord North, 490. Franklin's esteem
for, X. 1.

Fragment of Polybius, Sir W. Jones's
supposed, VIII. 543.
France, efforts to engage the Indians
in the cause of, III. 8. Conduct of
the Indians in her interest, IV. 7.
Respecting cessions of territory by, 8.
Facilities enjoyed by, for harassing
our frontier, 14. Evils which would
result from leaving her in possession
of Canada, 16. Of the aid given by,
for the purpose of producing disaffec-
tion in the colonies, 44. Check upon
their growth, which would be the re-
sult of her continued possession of
Canada, 46. Invalidity of her claim
to lands of the Six Nations on the
Ohio, 329. Compliment paid to
Franklin in, for his electrical writ

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