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spect to the light in sea-water, 190.
His remarks on the method of furnish-
ing supplies to the Indians, VII. 78.
Bows and Arrows, their utility in war,
VIII. 170.

BOYLE, on the exposure of the Russians
to the extremes of heat and cold,
VI. 59.
BRADDOCK, EDWARD, General, is aided
by Franklin in procuring horses and
wagons for the army, I. 184. His
character, 189. Defects as a general,
190. His call on the Governor of
Pennsylvania for supplies of provi-
sions under convoy, Ill. 357. His
letter requested of the Governor by
the Assembly, 358. His instructions
quoted, relative to the Six Nations,
IV. 328.

BRADFORD, ANDREW, the printer, visit-
ed by Franklin in Philadelphia, I. 35.
Becomes Publisher of the Weekly
Mercury, the first newspaper printed
in Pennsylvania, II. 13.

BRAY, THOMAS, his benevolent charac-
ter, VII. 202.

Brescia, explosion of the powder-maga-
zine at, alluded to, V. 432.
Breviate, Mr. Hartley's, laid before the
British ministers, IX. 216.

Bribery, at elections in England, VII.


BRIENNE, Archbishop of Toulouse, his
character as a minister, X. 316.
BRILLON, Madame de, VIII. 473.
British Army, their conduct in Ameri-
ca, VIII. 422.

BROGLIE, Prince de, introduced to
Washington, IX. 199. To Mr. Liv-
ingston, 201. To Robert Morris, 203.
Brotherly Love, Franklin's parable on,
II. 123.

BUCHAN, Earl of, inquires of Franklin
respecting the expediency of emi-
gration from Scotland to the United
States, IX. 486.

BUFFON, M. de, his experiments in
electricity, V. 176. His complimentary
letter to Franklin, X 312.

BURGH, his death and character, IX.

BURGOYNE, General, of his exchange
for Colonel Laurens, IX. 84.
BURKE, EDMUND, remarks on the Letter
to Two Great Men ascribed by some
to, IV. 1. Examination of the com-
mercial principles of the late negotia-
tion between Great Britain and France
in 1761, attributed to, 2. His speeches
quoted, 262, 266. His kindness to
Mr. Laurens, IX. 84.

BURNET, Governor, his controversy
with the Assembly of Massachusetts,
I. 86.

Busy-Body, written by Franklin, I. 84.
Origin of the, II. 13.
BYLES, MATHER, his complimentary
letter to Franklin, X. 303.


Cables of vessels, construction of, VI.

CALEF, Captain, his agency in regard
to the proposed separation of the east-
ern townships from Massachusetts,
VIII. 66.

CALVET, PIERRE DU, his claims on the
United States, X. 30.
Cambridge, Franklin visits the English
University of, VII. 177.

CAMPOMANES, Count de, his character,
X. 98. His laudable efforts to promote
intelligence and industry in Spain,
99. His remarks on Franklin's writ-
ings, 114. And discoveries, 115.
Canada, sums voted by the Assembly
of Pennsylvania for an expedition
against, II. 212. Interest of Great
Britain, considered in reference to the
acquisition of, IV. I. Benefits which
would result from the cession of, by
France, 10. Its possession a sufficient
safeguard against the French and In-
dians, 11. Easily peopled, without
draining England of her population


Proposition for granting a free
government to, V. 21. Importance of,
to England, VII. 193. Commissioners
to, appointed by Congress, VIII. 178.
Offered by Great Britain to France,
to induce her to treat, IX. 210. Its
surrender suggested by Franklin to
Mr. Oswald, 251.

CANASSETEGO, an Indian chief, anecdote
of, II. 458.

Cancer, pokeweed a remedy for, V. 287.
CANTON, JOHN, his experiment of draw-
ing the electric fluid from the clouds,
V. 297. Experiments by Franklin in
pursuance of those of, 346. Notice
of, VI. 256.

Cantoon Stone, its quality of absorbing
water, VI. 321.

Cape Breton, humorous remarks on
the expedition against, VII. 16. Of
the engineers employed against, 28.
Capital Punishment, objections to the
infliction of, II. 479.

CARLETON, SIR GUY, General, his con-
duct at the evacuation of New York
by the British, II. 504. His attempt
to open a negotiation in the United
States, IX. 222, 346, 348, 349. Com-
municates with Washington, 380.
CARMARTHEN, Lord, complains of al-
leged defects of form in the ratification
of the treaty of peace, X. 95.

CARMICHAEL, WILLIAM, his allusion to
Lafayette, VIII. 305. His diplomatic
station, 471.

Carriage-wheel, account of a newly
invented, VI. 383.


Carthagena, grant made by the Assem-
bly of Pennsylvania, for the expedi-
tion against, III. 210.

CARVER, JOHN, the traveller, VII. 438.
CASTERA, his edition of Franklin's
works alluded to, II 435.

Castle William, Franklin's proposition
for the restoration of, to Massachusetts,
V. 21.

CASTRIES, M. de, his compliment to
Franklin, X. 218.

Casuistry, case of, II. 545.
Catania, its destruction by an earth-
quake, VI. 10.

Catarrh, opinion of ancient philosophers
respecting, VI. 339.

Catechism relative to the English Na-
tional Debt, V. 120.

Cats, humorous Petition of the, to Ma-
dame Helvétius, II. 206. The same
translated, 214.

Causes of the American Discontents be-
fore 1768, explanation of the circum-
stances that induced its publication,
IV. 242.

Causes of Earthquakes and theories
concerning them, VI. 1.

CAVE, EDMUND, publishes in London
Franklin's Letters on Electricity, V.
178. His preface. 179.

periment to show the heat requisite
to render thick glass permeable by
electricity, V. 383.

Celia Single, letter from, II. 536.
CELSUS, his views respecting colds, VI.

Chain, experiments with an electrified,

VI. 275.

Chambers of legislation, one preferable
to two, X. 345, 361.

CHAMBERLIN, portrait of Franklin by,
VIII. 118.

CHAPMAN, account of his conversation
with Franklin, respecting peace, VII.
Charcoal, its qualities as an electrical
conductor, V. 426. Danger of burn-

ing, in pots, VI. 44.
Charity, remarks on, VII. 9, 184.
CHARLES THE FIRST, policy of, in re-
gard to libel, II. 239.

CHARLES THE SECOND, his policy in
regard to libel, II. 291.

Charleston, fire in, VIII. 252. Its cap-
ture by the British, 482.

Charmidas, Dialogue between Socrates
and, concerning public employments,
II. 62.

Charter of Privileges, Penn's, to the
Province of Pennsylvania and terri-
tories, III. 158.

Charter governments, of the colonies,
what, III. 97.

Charters, colonial, subject to alteration
only by agreement between the King
and the colonies, IV. 273.
CHASTELLUX, Chevalier de, his Travels
mentioned, VIII. 442. Again, X. 262.
His translation of a poem by Hum-
phreys, 263. Both again alluded to,

CHATHAM, Lord, his attempts and plan
for reconciliation between Great Brit-
ain and the colonies, V. 1. His first
interview with Franklin, 5. Second
interview, and his opinion of the con-
duct of Congress, 34. His motion
for a reconciliation, in the House
of Lords, 45. Franklin's opinion of
his eloquence, 46. Communicates
to Franklin his plan of compromise,
47. Opens his plan in the House of
Lords, 51. His panegyric of Frank-
lin, 53. His declining health, VII.
336. Extract from one of his speeches,
468. His speech relative to the con-
duct of the colonies, quoted, VIII. 122.
His motion for conciliation rejected,
140. His view of the proceedings of
Congress, X. 435.

CHAUMONT, recommended to the Presi-
dent of Congress, X. 160.
Cheese, manufacture of, in China, VII.

Cherokees, invalidity of their claim to
lands south of the Ohio, IV. 325.
Chess, morals of, II. 187. Instruction
to be drawn from, 188.
CHEZAULX, Communicates the Danish
seizure of American prizes, VIII. 407.
Chimneys, causes of neighbouring
smoke coming down the vents of, VI.
231. Their utility for the purpose of
ventilation, 309. Method of contract-
ing, 324. On the causes and remedy
for smoky, 505. Want of air, a fre-
quent cause of smoky, 509. Reme-
dies suggested, 511. Large size of
their openings, another cause, 514.
Remedy for this, 515. Shortness of
the funnel, a third, and the remedy,
517. Their overpowering one another,
519. Inconvenient situation of doors
in reference to, 521. Their modern
origin, 524. Account of the Stafford-
shire, 531. Their use as a means of
cooling in summer, 536. On smoky,
VII 431.

China, a fictitious Letter from, II 241.

Remarks concerning the provision
made in, against famine, 381. Views of
the physicians of, relative to a draught
of cold air, VI. 42. Method of warm-
ing rooms in, 538. Mode of making
paper in, 577. Manufacture of cheese
in, VII. 464. Culture of silk in, 536.
Of the paper made in, VIII. 88. Of
ascending honors in, X. 59.
China-ware, art of printing on, VIII. 94.
Lord, proposes
Franklin to write to Lord Shelburne,
IX. 239.


Church, importance of attending, VII.

Church of England, respecting a bishop
of the, in America, VII. 402, 437.
See Clergy.

Churches, number of, struck by light-
ning, V. 423. Effect of multiplying
congregations in, VII. 49. Franklin's
method of warming, alluded to, VIII.

CHURCHMAN, JOHN, on his theory of the
variation of the magnetic needle, VI.
571. His "Magnetic Atlas," X. 289.
Cincinnati, order of, remarks on the,
X. 58 Disapproved, 176.
Circle, Magical, VI. 104.

CLAP, THOMAS, notice of, VI. 188.
CLARE, Lord, Franklin's conversation
with, on American affairs, VII. 365.
Ceases to be a member of the Board
of Trade, 410. Again referred to, 411.
CLARE, M, his Treatise on the Motion
of Fluids, quoted, relative to the dan-
ger of exposure to a draught of cold
air, VI. 40.

CLARKE, his observations on the late
and present conduct of the French
quoted, in reference to the Indians in
the French interest, IV. 7. Again
quoted, respecting their habits of life,
12. And military resources, 13.
CLARKE, WILLIAM, remark by, quoted,
concerning Franklin's Observations
on the Increase of Mankind, II. 311.
CLAYPOOLE, GEORGE, mortality in his
family, VII. 4.

Clergy, of the provision in the consti-
tution of Massachusetts for the main-
tenance of the, IX. 36. Ordination of
the American Episcopal in England

X. 109.

CLINTON, SIR HENRY, respecting a let-
ter of, VIII. 468.

Clock, Whitehurst's, with three wheels,
noticed, VI. 461.

Cloth, effect of the sun's rays on, of
different colors, VI. 237. Adaptation
of the colors of, to different climates,


Clouds, of those formed by vapors from
the earth and sea, V. 215. Electricity

of, 279. Their positive and sometimes
negative electricity, 302. In thunder-
storms, it is the earth that strikes into
the, 305. How they become nega.
tively electrified, 355. Objections to
the hypothesis, 310. Additional proof
of positive and negative electricity in,
and new method of ascertaining the
fact, 341. Difficulty of determining
how they become charged with elec
tricity 351. Of the existence of nega-
tive electricity in, 411.

Club for Mutual Improvement, Rules
for a, II. 9.

Cohesion of the parts of bodies, cause
of the, VI. 123.

Coin, useful only as the medium of ex-
changing commodities, II. 394. Re-
marks on the quality of British, 396.
Character and value of, 410. Its pur-
pose and utility, 411. Evil arising
from an incorrect estimate of the rela-
tive value of gold and silver in, 412.
its utility, X. 307,

Coinage, copper, for the United States,
projected, VIII. 383.

Cold, production of, by evaporation, VI.
203. Remarks relative to heat and,
205 Produced by mixing some chem-
ical liquors, or salt and snow, 209.
on Franklin's Hints for a Scheme for
the Union of the Colonies, III. 30,
Account of, V. 258. Sketch of his
life, and his suggestion of a new meth-
od of printing, VI. 18. His reply to
Strahan's objections to this method, 26.
His thoughts on different species of
matter, and suggestions for publishing
philosophical papers, 33. His view
of the benefit of Franklin's stove, 64.
His views as to the effect of the mo-
tion of the earth on the length of voy-
ages across the Atlantic, 76. His Phi-
losophical Treatise referred to, 94. Its
general objects, 96. His observations
upon light, 115. His Indian History
referred to, 117. His observations on
Franklin's meteorological paper, rela-
tive to the phenomena of water and
air, 177. His description of a water-
spout, 178. On the generation of
wind by fermentation, 196. On winds
blowing in contrary directions, and
the motion of the planets, 197. On
water-spouts, 199.

COLDEN, DAVID, his remarks on Nol-
let's Letters to Franklin on electricity,
V. 319. Franklin's opinion of the re-
marks, VII. 61.

Colds, opinion of ancient philosophers
respecting, VI. 339. Prevailing im-
pressions respecting, ill-founded, 378.
Respecting inquiries into the causes of,

387. Definition of, 388. Known only
in civilized countries, 393. Produced
by contagion, 400. Not produced by
cold air, 401.
COLEMAN, WILLIAM, an associate of
Franklin, I. 82.
Colica Pictonum,
Instance of the, 566.
Colleges, of instruction in, VII. 44.
Subjects which should be studied in,
45. Best location of, 46.
COLLINS, JOHN, his intimacy with Frank-
lin, I. 17. His intemperance, 43.
COLLINSON, PETER, publishes in Eng-
land Franklin's Letters on Electricity,
V. 175. His description of bones of
the Great Mastodon, VI. 276. Notice
of, VII. 50. Some facts relating to,

cause of the, VI. 278.

Colonies, observations on the peopling
of, II. 311. Plan of union of the
American, III. 23. Taxation of the
American, 58. On their representa-
tion in Parliament, 64. See American

Colonies, British and French American,
of commerce with the, X. 85.
Comazants, explanation of, V. 224.
Comet, seen in Yorkshire, VI. 451.
Commerce, its effect upon manners, II.
329. Results of fair, 374. Remarks
on American, VII. 321. Correction
of an error respecting, IX. 55.
Commercial Convention proposed by Mr.
Hartley, IX. 416.


Commissioners of the Colonies, their
meeting at Albany in 1754, III. 22.
Plan of union adopted by the, 23.
List of their names,
Commissioners of Customs, of their ex-
emption from taxes, VII. 533. Injus-
tice of the scheme, 547.
Commissioners for American Affairs in
Europe, VIII. 190. Of bills drawn by
Congress upon, 249. On the settle-
ment of their accounts, 256. Arthur
Lee's course in regard to the accounts,
260. Inconvenience of maintaining
three, 291. Their financial situation
303. Their advances to Izard and Lee,
310. Their correspondence with Lord
Stormont on the subject of American
prisoners, IX. 166.

Commissioners for Negotiating Peace,
American, who, IX. 82. Nature of
their authority, 143. Their readiness
to treat, announced by Franklin, 195.
Sign the treaty with Great Britain
without communicating with the
French government, 453. Substance
of their instructions, relative to that
communication, 453. Their unreason-
able distrust of the French cabinet,
458. Of their conduct relative to the

signature of the treaty, 532. See


Commissioners, British, for treating with
Congress, character of their proposi-
tions, VIII. 302.

Commissioners to Canada, appointed by
Congress, VIII. 178. Their commis-
sion, 179.

Committee of Correspondence, appoint-
ment of the Rhode Island, VII. 264.
Constituted by several colonies, VIII.

Committee of the States dissolved, X.

Committee of Congress, to confer with
Washington respecting the army,
mentioned, VIII. 160.

Common Law, to what extent recog-
nised in the colonies, IV. 271.
Common Sense, Thomas Paine's, men.
tioned, VIII. 174.

Comparison of the Conduct of the an-
cient Jews and of the Anti-Federal-
ists in the United States of America, V.

Comparison of Great Britain and the
United States in Regard to the Basis of
Credit in the two Countries, II. 426.
Compass, Mariner's, effect of lightning
on the, V. 276. Its antiquity, IX. 29.
Composition, rules for, X. 399.
CONDORCET, Marquis de, Franklin's re-
plies to certain inquiries by, VI. 411.
Disapproves the constitution of the
United States, X. 353.

Conductors, a more appropriate term
than non-electric, V. 260. Correction
of the mistake, that only water and
metals are, 283. Difference in the
quality of, 350. What constitute the
best, 415. On the controversy respect-
ing blunt and pointed, VIII. 226. See

Conestogo Indians, their treaty with
Penn, IV. 54. Account of the mas-
sacre of the, 59. Cruel dealing of
the whites with the,.72.
Confederacy, vessel of war, apprehen
sion expressed of her loss, VIII. 412.
Confidence in the Divine Goodness, on,
VII. 261.

Congress, Colonial, meeting of, in 1765,
concerning the Stamp Act, IV. 471.
Principles on which they were con-
vened, 472.

Congress, Continental, suggested by
Franklin, VIII. 55, 63. Their petition
to the King, V. 26. Chatham's opinion
of their proceedings, 34. Franklin's
Articles of Confederation proposed in
the, 9. Appoint a committee to con
fer with Lord Howe, 97. Report of
the committee respecting the inter-
view, 106. Proposed meeting of a, in

New York, VII. 298. Importance of
unanimity in the, VIII. 132. Com-
mittee appointed by, to confer with
Washington respecting the army, 160.
Secret committee of correspondence,
when constituted, 163. Their mea-
sures censured as unfavorable to con-
ciliation, 177. Appoint commissioners
to Canada, 178. Of constituting them
a supreme legislature, 181. Recom-
mend the distribution of papers among
the Hessian troops, 185. Of their
bills drawn on the American commis-
sioners in France, 249. Their reso-
lution in compliment to Dr. Price,
354. Remonstrance of Count de Ver-
gennes against their resolutions re-
specting paper money held by foreign-
ers, 478 Those resolutions explained,
499. Of the aid of France to meet
the drafts of, 500. Remarks on their
issue of paper money, 506. Comment
of Vergennes on their resolution, or-
dering drafts on Franklin, 515. Em-
barrassment occasioned by their drafts,
520. Their instructions respecting
representations to the French court,
534. Accept the mediation of Russia
and Austria, IX. 47. Refuse to ac-
cept Franklin's resignation, 71. Of
their bills drawn on the ministers in
Europe, 74. Difficulty of meeting
those bills, 145. Their acts relative
to spoliations of the enemy, and
claims of loyalists, 426. Their instruc-
tions to the commissioners for nego-
tiating peace, relative to communicat-
ing with the French cabinet, 458.
Ratify the treaty of peace, X. 56.
Their resolves to place no party to a
commercial treaty on a better footing
than France, 138. Character of the,
in 1784, 153. Security to the people
derived from the mode of election of
its members, 177. First petition of, to
the King and Parliament, 433.
Constitution of the United States, Frank-
lin's general views respecting the, V.
155. Progress in its adoption, X. 337.
Remarks on the, 345. Its progress,
349, 350, 360, 409.

Constitutions, American, Franklin re-
quests leave to publish them in
France, IX. 503. Translated and pub-
lished in Paris, X. 39.
Convention for forming the Constitution,
proposals for consideration in the, V.
142. Franklin's speech in, on salaries,
144. And motion for prayers in the,
153. His speech at the conclusion of
its deliberations, 155.
Convention, commercial, proposed by
Mr. Hartley, IX. 416.

Convention of Deputies from the sever-

al towns in Massachusetts, their pe-
tition to the King, II. 485.
CONWAY, General, conversation of
Franklin with, on American affairs,
VII. 354. Another conversation with,

Cook, Captain, passport granted by
Franklin, for, V. 122. His voyages,
X. 111. Copy sent to Franklin by the
King's order, 125.

Cookery, modes of, at sea, II. 109. Its
quality at sea, VI. 493.

Cool Thoughts on the Present Situation
of our Public Affairs, object for which
it was written, IV. 78.
COOPER, SIR GREY, Franklin's conver
sation with, relative to his post of
deputy postmaster-general, VII. 406.
Writes respecting the treatment of
Colonel Laurens in the Tower, VIII.


COOPER, SAMUEL, Franklin's letter to,
quoted, on the relation of the colonies
to Great Britain, III. 67. His letter
on the Hutchinson Letters, quoted, 421.
Curious incident relating to Franklin's
letters to, VII. 440. Refers to a ru-
mor respecting the conduct of Frank-
lin in regard to the fisheries in nego-
tiating the treaty of peace, X. 6.
Copper, account of a mine of, in the
Jerseys, VI. 107. On covering houses
with, 329. Description of the mode
of doing this, 335.

Copper coinage, for the United States,
projected, VIII. 383. Suitable devices
for, 384.

Cork balls, electrical experiments with,
V. 330.

Corn, remarks on the price of, II. 355.
Effect of the British laws relative to
the exportation of, 356.
CORNBURY, Lord, Queen Anne's in-
structions to, relative to liberty of con-
science, IV. 86.
CORNWALLIS, Lord, his capitulation, IX.
95. His exchange for Mr. Laurens
suggested, 263, 292, 319. Is discharg
ed from his parole by Franklin, 327.
COUR, MATHON DE LA, Some of his
writings mentioned, X. 212. Frank-
lin's compliment to him, 239.
Court of the Press, account of the, II.
COWPER, WILLIAM, Franklin's opinion
of his poetry, IX. 221.
Craven Street Gazette, II. 233 to 240.
Credit, circumstances on which that of
individuals depends, II. 426.
Cremona, effect of lightning on a church
in, V. 467.

CRIGAN, CLAUDIUS, Bishop of Sodor
and Man, his complimentary letter to
Franklin, X. 183.

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