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ā. — Actually long vowels are marked without reference to syllabic quantity,

and all vowels (in the words when first presented) not marked long are supposed to be naturally short, although the syllable may be long by position. The pronunciation will of course depend on the rules learned

from the grammar. []. – All matter in square brackets is etymological. [Gr. Alolos]. - A Greek word in brackets preceded by Gr. indicates that the

Latin word is borrowed from the Greek one given. [?]. — The interrogation in brackets marks a doubtful etymology; after a word

or suggestion it indicates, as usual, a doubt, or a suggestion not yet gen

erally received. tservo. — A dagger marks a stem, or, in some cases, a word not found in

Latin, but which must once have existed. Such stems and words are

printed in different type. VFER. — The radical sign is used for convenience to indicate a root. By this

is meant the simplest Latin form attainable by analysis; though, strictly speaking, a root is impossible in Latin, as roots had ceased to exist, as

such, ages before Latin was a separate language. as if. - The words as if indicate that a word is formed according to such an

analogy, though the actual growth of the word may have been different. cf. - Compare, either for resemblance, contrast, or etymological kinship. wh. — which. poss. — possibly. prob. — probably. unc. – uncertain. kin. — kindred, kinship. (-).- a hyphen indicates composition. (+). — The plus sign indicates derivation by addition of a termination; the

process originally, of course, was one of composition. reduced. — The word reduced indicates the loss of a stem vowel either in

composition, derivation, or inflection. strengthened. — The word strengthened indicates a vowel change by which

the length of a root vowel is increased; as div., +Dyau, „snu, tnau. weakened. - The word weakened means that a vowel has descended the

vowel scale; as from a to o or e, o to e or i, etc. p.— present participle. p.p. — past participle. ger. - gerund (or gerundive). abl, — ablative. acc. - accusative. dat. — dative. compar. — comparative. superl. -- superlative. Italics. — Matter in italics is for translation; in Roman, is explanatory only.

VOCABULARY.

Note, – This vocabulary is not intended to serve as a key, but only to show the ideas which the Romans attached to the words given, and to suggest such English expressions as will serve for translation after the ideas are discovered.

In using it, therefore, the pupil should acquaint himself with the idea, and if no suitable expression in English occurs to him, he may then look farther to find one suggested. If the collocation of ideas is one that is strange to him, he may also look farther to see in what peculiar turns the Romans used such a collocation. But he should never be content to find the translation merely, or even first. What he must get is the idea, and then find, in his own vocabulary, or through some suggestion, an appropriate expression in his own language.

ā, interj., see ah.

-p.p., abditus, retired, concealed, ā, prep., see ab.

hidden. n. pl., abdita, hidden ab (ā, abs), [gen. or abl. of same ways.

stem as à 6], prep., away from abdūco, -cere, -x1, -ctum, [ab-
(cf. ex, out of), from off. — Esp. duco), v. tr. 3, lead away. — Less
in a series of events after (from exactly, take away, withdraw.
one to another). — Fig. of source, abeõ, -ire, -ii, -itum, [ab-eo], v.
from. — With the passive, to de- intr. irr., go away, go off. Fig.,
note the agent, by. — With differ- pass, turn, be lost : in flammas,
ent conn. of ideas from Eng., 0n, burst.
in, in respect to, for: a dextra, abies, -etis, [?], n. 3 f., fir (tree or
on the right; materno a san- wood).
guine, on the mother's side ; in- abigo, -ere, -ēgi, -actum, [ab-
signis ab arte, famous for his ago), v. tr. 3, drive away. — Fig.,
skill. In comp. as adv., from, dispel.
away, off.

| ablātus, p.p. of aufero. Abantiadēs, -ae, [Abanti- (as if abluõ, -ere, -lui, -lūtum, [ab-luo),

stem of Abas) + ades], m., de- v. tr. 3, wash off, wash, bathe. scendant of Abas, king of Argos. aboleõ, -ēre, -ui, -itum, [ab-toleo,

— Esp. Perseus (his great-grand- of. obsolesco), v. tr. 2, wear away, son).

waste away, destroy (lit. and fig.). abditus, p.p. of abdo.

| abripio, -ere, ripui, reptum, abdõ, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [ab-| [ab-rapio), v. tr. 3, snatch from

do ?], v. tr. 3, put away, hide. — or away, drag off, carry off, tear Hence, plunge, bury (of a weapon). I away or from.

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abrumpõ, -ere, -rūpi, -ruptum, [ad-fcando, cf. candeo), v. tr.

[ab-rumpo], v. tr. 3, break off, 3, light, kindle, set on fire. — P.p., break away, break (of). - p.p., accēnsus, in flames. abruptus, broken.

| accēnsus, p.p. of accendo. abscēdõ, -ere, -ēssī, -ēssum, [abs- accers (arcessõ), ere, ivi,

cedo], v. intr. 3, withdraw, depart. Itum, [?], v. tr. 3, fetch, summon, - Esp., revolt from (dat.).

send for. abscindõ, -ere, -scidī, -scissum, accinctus, p.p. of accingo.

[ab-scindo), v. tr. 3, cut or tear accingõ, -ere, -nxi, -nctum, [ad. off; sever, divide, separate.

cingo), v. tr. 3, gird on. — Also, abscond), -ere, -didi, -ditum, gird (with a thing).- Pass., gird

[abs-condo), v. tr. 3, hide away, on (to one's self, abl.), arm one's hide. — Hence, swallow.

self. — Hence, gird one's self, abstulī, [abs-tuli], perf. of au arouse one's self. — p.p., accincfero.

tus, girded, armed. absum, -esse, āfui, āfutārus, accipið, ere, -cēpi, -ceptum,

[ab-sum], v. intr. irr., be away, be [ad-capio], v. tr. 3, take, receive, off, be far, be distant, be wanting, accept. — Hence, hear. not be there, not be among (dat.), accipiter, -tris, [unc. stem (akin be unknown (poena metusque), to ocior) tpetris, akin to peto], be absent, be far from (helping m., a hawk. one): tantum abest, so far is it, Accius, -i, [cf. Acca), m., L.

etc. — pres. p., absēns, absent. Accius, a Roman tragic poet. absāmō, -ere, -psi, -ptum, [ab-acclinis, -e, [ad-clinis, VCLI (cf.

sumo), v. tr. 3, (take away), con- Klivw), + is], adj., leaning (on

sume, exhaust, waste (lit. and fig.). something), reclining, lying down, abundē, [old abl. of tabundus drooping.

(ab-unda)], adv. (overflowingly), acclīvis, -e, [ad-clivus, weak

in full measure, abundantly. L ened], adj., sloping, ascending. abundo, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, [abun- | acclivus, -a, -um, [ad-clivus),

do-, cf. abunde], v. intr. 1, over- adj., ascending.

flow. — Less exactly, abound. accommodő (adc-), -āre, -āvi, āc, see atque.

-ātum [ad-commodo], v. tr. 1, Acastus, -i, [Gr. "Akaotos], m., fit to, fit on, fit (on).

son of Pelias, king of Iolcus, en- accumbo, -ere, -cubui, -cubi.

gaged in the Calydonian hunt. I tum, [ad-cumbo], v. intr. 3, reAcca, -ae, [?], f., Acca Laurentia, / cline (esp. at dinner).

wife of Faustulus, who cared for acer, -eris, [?], n., maple (tree or Romulus and Remus.

wood). accēdõ, -ere, -ēssi, -ēssum, [ad- ācer, -cris, -cre, [Vac+rus, weak

cedo), v. intr. 3, come to, approach, L ened], adj. (sharp). — Fig., fierce, join; (from mercantile use ?) be wild, active, bitter, hot : non acer, added to (cf. accession) : eodem, not too hot.

be added to the same account. acernus, -a, -um, [acer + nus), accendõ, -ere, «cendi, -cēnsum, adj., of maple, maple- (as adj.).

acerra, -ae, [?], f., casket, box (for | Actaeon, -ōnis, [Gr. 'Axtalwv], m., incense).

son of Autonoe, daughter of Cadacervus, -i, [ācer + vus), m., heap, mus, torn to pieces by his dogs. pile.

Actaeus, -a, -um, [Gr., 'Aktaios], Achāïa, -ae, [Gr. 'Axala], f., a dis- adj., belonging to the region Acte.

trict in the northern part of Pelo- - Hence, Attic.
ponnesus; also Achaia Phthiotis, āctor, -āris, [VAG (ago) + tor],
a district in Thessaly. - Less ex- ! m, driver, mover, doer, performer.
actly, Greece.

Actoridēs, -ae, m.: 1. an EthiAchāïcus, -a, -um, [Gr. 'Axaïkós], opian, Erytus, son of an unknown

adj., Achaan. — Less exactly, Gre Actor; 2. Patroclus, the friend of cian.

Achilles ; -3. Actoridae, -ārum, · Achāïs, -idos, [Gr. 'Axats], f. adj., | Eurytus and Cleatus, sons of the

Achæan. — Less exactly, Grecian; Messenian Actor, participants in also subst., Achaia, Greece.

the Calydonian hunt. Achelõïdes, -um, [Gr. 'Axelwis], acīmen, inis, (acū- (stem of

f., daughters of the Ætolian river- | acuo) + men], n., sharpness,

god Achelous. — Hence, the Sirens. point: sine acumine, pointless. Acheron, -ontis, [Gr. 'Axépwv], acuð, -ere, -ui, -ātum, [acū

m., a river of the lower world. (stem of acus, lengthened) +0], - Hence, the lower world. — Per- v. tr. 3, sharpen. - p.p., acātus; sonified, the god of the river. I see the word. Achillēs, -is (-i, or -ei), [Gr. 'Axia- acus, -ūs, [VAC+ us], f., (sharp

leus], m., son of Peleus and the thing, point), needle.
sea-goddess Thetis, the greatest acātus, -a, -um, (p.p. of acuo],

Grecian warrior in the Trojan war. | adj., (sharpened), sharp, pointed, Achivus, -a, -um, (as if Gr. 'AXEL sharp-pointed. - Transf., shrill :

fós], adj., Achæan. — Less exactly, vox.
Grecian.

| ad, [case of unc. stem, cf. &Ti], āciēs, -ēī, [VAC + ies, perh. through prep., towards, to. — Less exactly,

intermediate stem], f., point, edge, at, for, by: ad radios lunae; ad line. — Hence, line of sight, look, annum, (yearly, cf. from year to glance. — Transf., line of battle, year). — Adv. in comp., to, on, in, war.

often merged in verb. Acis, -idis, [Gr. "Akis), m., son of adamantēus, -a, -um, [Greek],

Faunus and Symæthis, changed adj., of adamant. Hence, imto a river-god.

perishable, indestructible, immoraconitum, -i, [Greek], n., poison. tal. – Pl., same.

| adamas, -antis, [Greek, unconAcontius, -í, [Gr. 'AKOVTIOS], m., a querable], m., adamant (a fabled

youth from the island of Ceos, mixture of metals supposed to be lover of Cydippe.

indestructible). ācriter, [acri + ter, N. of -teros, adcommodo, see accommodo.

cf. alter, utrum], adv., sharply, addico, -ere,-dixi, -dictum, [adfiercely, violently : flere (bitterly). I dico), v. tr. 3, adjudge to. — Hence

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