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63. Charybdis was a terrible whirlpool on the Sicilian side of the straits of Messina; Scylla was a monster dwelling in a cave on the

Italian side of the same strait. She was a maiden Fig. 35. down to the waist, which was girt with savage dogs.

(Fig. 35.) See argument to Book XIV. vv. 1–74
(p. 149). There is now a cliff on the Italian side,
and a succession of eddies within the opposite
point, which may have been more formidable in
ancient times. Jason passed between them on his
long and circuitous homeward voyage.

72. pietas, filial love.
73. dabat, was on the point of turning.

74. Hecates : Hecate, daughter of Perses was Scylla.

the goddess of magic, and was identified with

Artemis as goddess of the under-world. 76. fortis, i.e. against her passion.

79. solet agrees with scintilla. — -que connects assumere and crescere: the quantity of the final a in parvă and inductā shows their agreement.

83. specie, beauty.
Fig. 36.

84. solito, abl., follows formosior.
86. tum denique, not until then.
91. torum, marriage.

94. promissa dato= keep your promises. — triformis : Hecate was represented as composed of three bodies, standing back to back. (See Fig. 36.)

95. quod, whatever.

96. patrem soceri: the father of Æetes was Helios, the sun-god. -- futuri, agrees with soceri.

97. eventus, fate.

98. cantatas, enchanted (having been the subject of magic incantations).

99. tesca, waste places (some editors read

tecta, the house). Hecate.

101. Mavortis, Mavors, an ancient form

of Mars. 102. jugis, on the lines of hills. This scene is represented in Fig. 37. 103. purpureus, clad in purple. 104. adamanteis, unsubdued.

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106. camini, forges.

107. aut, sc. ut resonare solent. — silices, limestone. — terrena fornace (abl. of means), in a lime-kiln (built of earthen bricks). – soluti, made brittle and friable.

108. concipiunt ignem, develop heat.
111. vertēre, perfect. — venientis, i.e. Iasonis.
116. medicamina, the herbs given him by Medea.
118. subpositos, sc. tauros.

122. vipereos dentes: these were some of the teeth of the dragon slain by Cadmus (Book III. vv. 50–130). They had been given by Minerva to Æetes.

123. praetincta agrees with semina. 131. praeacutae cuspidis, gen. of quality ($215; G. 365; H. 396, v.). 440.3 132. Haemonii, Thessalian. 133. Pelasgi, the Greeks. 138. auxiliare, in aid of her former incantations. 140. a se depulsum, turned away from himself. 142. Achivi, another ancient name for the Greeks. 144. barbara, i.e. Medea. 147. adfectu, transport.

Fig. 37

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Jason at Colchis.

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148. carminibus, dative. — horum, i.e. the incantations.
151. arietis, three syllables, ar(y)etis. — aurei, two syllables.

152. Lethaei, possessing the property of the water of Lethe, — to cause forgetfulness.

154. concita, raging.

155. sibi relates to somnus = eyes that were unacquainted with it. (See the head of the dragon in Fig. 37, right-hand part.)

157. spolia, in apposition with auctorem (Medea).

407

539.4

158. lölciacos : Iolcos was a seacoast upon the Pagasæan Gulf, from which the Argo had sailed.

160. flammā, ablative.

161. cornibus, dat. following inducta = with gilded horns. - au. rum: $ 240, C, N.; G. 338, n.2; H. 377.

162. Aeson, father of Jason.
166. excessit fidem, has passed belief.

167. possunt, sc. carmina. — possint, deliberative subjunctive ($ 268; G. 258; H. 484, v.).

168. deme, sc. annos. — meis, fated to me.

170. dissimilem [her mind], unlike his, i.e. unfilial. — subiit: the last i is long; see note on Book I. v. 114. - Aeeta relictus, the image of the deserted Æeta [Æetes].

171. affectus, emotions.

173. transcribere: a term used by money-dealers, to describe the written bill or draft by which money was transferred.

174. sinat, the apodosis of a less vivid future condition. — aequa, a reasonable request. — isto (sc. munere) follows majus.

177. annis tuis, abl. of means, like arte mea; and aevum is the object of revocare.

179. ut, i.e. until the time that; it was three nights from full moon, when magic rites could be best practised. — tota, wholly.

182. vestes : $ 240, C, N.; G. 338, n.2; H. 377.

183. pedem, capillos, Greek accusative ($ 240, c; G. 338; H. 378). - nudos, unbound.

186. nullo cum murmure, sc. est: even the insects in the hedge were silent.

191. solvit, opened.
193. aurea, predicate, agreeing with astra.

195. cantusque artesque (acc.), governed by instruis: another object (of the person) is magos. — magorum: the magi were a priestly class among the Medes, whose religion consisted in the worship of the evil principle, embodied in the serpent Afrasiab; it is represented by that of the devil-worshippers of the present day. As was natural, their worship was associated with necromantic arts, and the word magic is derived from their name.

196. herbis, abl. of means.

200. concussa agrees with freta, being contrasted with stantia; sisto and concutio are also contrasted : she checks them when in motion, and excites them when at rest.

204. suā convulsă terrā, torn up from the earth in which they grew.

407

416

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207. traho, bring down, and so cause an eclipse; for it was popularly believed that eclipses were caused by magic arts. — Temesaea, an epithet, probably derived from Tamassus, in Cyprus, where were copper mines. On the occasion of an eclipse of the moon, they beat brazen vessels, in order to dispel the magic by the noise. — labores, eclipse.

209. avi, i.e. the Sun-god, father of Æetes.
210. vos refers to the objects addressed, vv. 192–196.
212. in se fera bella, fierce strife against each other.

213. rudem, unacquainted with, construed with somni. — aurum, i.e. the golden fleece.

214. vindice, its guardian, the dragon.

217. neque ... frustra: the flashing of the stars signified the consent of the gods.

219. aderat, i.e. sent by her grandfather, the Sun.
222. Tempe, neuter plural, a beautiful valley in Thessaly.

223. Threces : under this name was comprised, in early times, Macedonia, lying north of Thessaly.

226. placitas, sc. herbas, those that she selects. The mountains and rivers here (224-230) mentioned are all in Thessaly.

231. Boebes : Boebe is in Thessaly, Anthedon in Baotia; the latter lying on the Euripus, opposite Eubea.

233. vulgatum, made famous. — Glauci: Glaucus was a fisherman who, by tasting these herbs, was impelled to leap into the water, where he was changed into a sea-god. (See Book XIII. 917.)

237. posuere: the magic power of the herbs was such that their mere odor caused the serpents to slough their skins and become young.

239. tantum caelo tegitur, i.e. she remains under the open sky. 242. verbenis, sprigs of various plants, used in sacred rites.

243. scrobibus, sc. e ; construe with egesta. In sacrificing to the deities of the nether world, it was customary to dig a ditch, into which the libation was poured, and the blood of the black animal sacrificed was allowed to flow.

244. velleris atri = a black-fleeced sheep. 246. bacchi, wine.

249. umbrarum regem, Pluto. — rapta conjuge, Proserpine. (See Book V. vv. 385-424.)

250. ne properent, i.e. before the completion of her magic rites.

251. precibusque et murmure: just as -que is sometimes repeated in poetry (partly, at least, for metrical reasons), so here it is added before et (thus making the last syllable of precibus long) without any independent meaning.

253. plenos, sound, (i.e. complete; cf “full gallop,” “ full stop,” etc.).

258. bacchantum : in the rites of Bacchus (Dionysos), celebrated by women, the votaries unbound their hair, and were possessed for a time with a religious frenzy. (See Fig. 38.)

259. multifidas faces, lightFig. 38.

wood, split fine.

261. lustrat: this word here describes the .circling about the old man, as well as the purifying rites.

265. seminaqué: -que is oc- . casionally scanned long, especially in the first half of the second foot of the line. — acres, rank.

267. refluum describes the motion of the tide, which is very slight (and in most places altogether wanting) in the Mediterranean; so here, the tides of the ocean.

268. pernocte, full, for when Bacchanal.

full it shines through the night.

269. strigis: the strix is a bird often mentioned in magic, but, says Pliny, que sit avium constare non arbitror. It is usually identified with the screech-owl.

271. ambigui lupi: the were-wolf, here described, was rather a man who could assume the form of a wolf, than a wolf who could turn into a man. The belief in such creatures was widespread among many peoples. - prosecta, the parts cut off for sacrifice.

272. Cinyphii = Libyan.

273. vivacis, long-lived: the stag, as well as the crow, was believed to live to a great age.

274. passae, that had passed or lived.

276. remorari expresses the purpose of propositum, the gift (munus) intended to delay death (Tartara) ($ 273, d; G. 423, 2; H. 533, ii, 3).

277. jampridem qualifies arenti. — mitis, the quality of the fruit transferred to the tree.

290. situs, long tarrying in one place, and so the rust and dirt resulting from such tarrying; here, the decay of age.

293. hunc, sc. fuisse, of this aspect.

608.4.1.1

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