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529. nisi sorte, except by lot.
531. lege, condition.
532. cautum est, it has been provided.
533. certum est, her mind is made up.
534. jejunia solverat, had broken her fast.

535. cultis hortis : the gardens of the lower world are not mentioned elsewhere, but as the Elysian Fields were illuminated by a sun of their own, and were otherwise attractive, it is natural to suppose that the palace of Pluto stood in a garden.

537. de cortice: the seeds of the pomegranate are wrapped each in its separate pulpy sheath. This fruit is often used as a symbol of the lower world.

540. Avernales : of Avernus, i.e. of the rivers of the lower world; the name Avernus was applied to the sulphurous waters whose fumes were thought to kill the birds that flew over, especially to the lake Avernus in Campania.

541. suo, her kindred; Acheron was a river and river-god of the lower world.

543. profanam, of evil omen. 544. Phlegethontide: Phlegethon was one of the rivers of Hades. 546. sibi ablatus, deprived of himself (his own identity).

547. in caput crescit= his head enlarges. -- ungues, bends back long claws, i.e. receives long hooked claws.

548. natas, which had grown.

552. Acheloides, daughters of Achelous (a river of Central Greece) and the Muse Melpomene. —unde, sc. sunt.

555. doctae, skilled (in singing). The Sirens had the faces of maidens and bodies of birds, and were endowed with the gift of song. (See Fig. 26.)

Fig. 26.

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557. ut, etc., that the waters as well as the land might experience, etc.

558. posse ... optastis, you wished to be able to rest above the waters on the oars of wings (cf. remigio alarum, Virgil, Æn. I. 301), i.e. to float in the air, or fly.

559. faciles, compliant.

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563, remansit, sing. agreeing with vox, its nearest subject ($ 205, d; G. 285, exc. 1; H. 463, i.).

564. medius, as a mediator between : medius with the gen. is not uncommon; cf. v. 409, above. Fiz. 27.

565. ex aequo, equally.

566. regnorum ... duorum: Proserpine was, as wife of Pluto, a deity of the lower world, but as daughter of Ceres she was a goddess of fertility and vegetable life. Her annual de

scent to Hades (in Return of Proserpine.

the autumn) and return to the earth (in the spring) symbolizes the apparent death and resurrection of nature. (See Fig. 27.)

568. mentis et oris, sc. Proserpinae.

569. quae: the antecedent is frons. — Diti quoque, even to Pluto, who was used to the sad faces of the dead.

571. victis, i.e. after conquering them. Fig. 28.

573. sacer fons : Arethusa was a peculiarly sacred YPAK spring, and is represented on some Syracusan coins.

(See Fig. 28.)

576. fluminis Elei, i.e. the Alpheus.
577. Achaïde, Greece.

578. saltus legit, scoured the glades (in the

chase). Arethusa.

582. nec ... juvabat, nor did my too highly

praised beauty give me any pleasure. 583. qua : the antecedent is dote corporis ; the abl. is abl. of cause.

585. Stymphalide: Stymphalos was a district of Arcadia.
587. sine vertice, without an eddy.
588. alte, deep below.
590. nutrita undā, fed by the wave.

591. sponte sua natas, i.e. natural shade, not arranged by human hands.— ripis, dative.

597. nescio quod murmur, some murmur, When nescio qui (or

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quis) means some, it is regarded as a mere indefinite pronoun, not as an indirect question; hence sensi is here indicative ($ 334, e; G. 467, R.'; H. 529, 5, 3).

605. fugere, sc. solent.

607. Cyllenenque: a spondaic verse. Orchomenos and Psophis are cities; Cyllene, Mänalus, and Erymanthus are mountains, of Arcadia. The course here described is an almost impossible one; nor, for the matter of that, does the Alpheus flow near Stymphalos.

609. me, ablative.

611. patiens, enduring. — laboris : see § 218, 6; G. 375 ; H. 399, i.

615. umbram, i.e. of Alpheus. — nisi si, pleonastic for nisi ($ 315, a, 2; G. 591, 2, R.?; H. 507, 3, N.“). .619. Dictynna, a name of Diana, from a mountain in Crete.

620. ferre, object of dedisti; to whom thou hast often given (i.e. granted) to bear, etc.

622. tectam, sc. me.
625. lo: the final vowel of interjections is not elided.
631. servat = observat, he keeps in view.

632. mihi, dative of reference ($ 235, a; G. 350, 1; H. 384, 4, n.2).

633. caeruleae, i.e. the color proper to water-deities: she was already turning to a fountain.

634. lacus, pool.

636. sed enim: the ellipsis is something as follows, — but [I was not yet safe] for, etc.

637. posito, laying aside. — ore, countenance.

639. Delia, an epithet of Diana from the island of Delos, which was sacred to her and her brother Apollo.

640. cognomine ... meae, welcome by the name of my protecting livinity: Ortygia (named from optuĚ, a quail) was sacred to Diana, and is one of her titles.

642. fertilis = of fertility. angues, dragons, or winged serpents. The chariot of Ceres was drawn by serpents.

645. Tritonida in urbem, into the city of Pallas (Athens).

646. Triptolemo: Triptolemus was a son of Celeus, king of Eleusis, with whom Ceres had found shelter during her wanderings. She undertook to make the boy immortal by laying him in the hot ashes; and when this was prevented by the fears of his mother, taught him the arts of husbandry. Triptolemus was a principal figure in the Eleusinian worship of Demeter, being regarded as the medium through whom agriculture was

taught to mankind. (See Fig. 29.) — rudi humo, in virgin soil (dative).

647. post ... recultae, cultivated again after a long time, i.e. which had long lain fallow; recultae agrees with humo.

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650. subit penates, arrives at the dwelling.

651. qua veniat, irdir. question with rogatus; in the same construction with the accusatives nomen and patriam.

661. Mopsonium: an ancient name of Attica was Mopsonia. sacros jugales, the sacred yoke-beasts, i.e. dragons.


VI. 1. dictis talibus, the story of the transformation of the Pierides into magpies.

2. Aonidum, the Muses, who lived on Mount Helicon in Aonia, which was afterward called Bæotia.

3. secum, sc. dixit, she said to herself. 5. Arachnes, Greek genitive.

6. sibi: Minerva was the inventress and patron deity of weaving and embroidery. Arachne refused to yield to her in the renown of skill in weaving

8. Colophonius : Colophon was a city of Ionia.

9. Phocaïco murice: Phocæa was an Ionian seaport. The murer is a shell-fish which yields a purple dye.

11. aequa: she was his equal; for he was a dyer, and she also was de plebe. — illa, Arachne.

12. studio, by her diligence in embroidery, etc.
13. Hypaepis, neut. pl., at Hypæpa, a small town of Lydia.

15. Timoli: Timolus (or Tmolus) is a Lydian mountain, in the heights * of which the river Pactolus takes its rise.

17. factas vestes, the finished cloths.

18. cum fierent, sc. spectare juvabat, it was pleasant to look on while they were making ; such was Arachne's grace (decor) as she worked.

• 19. rudem lanam, the crude wool. primos orbes, the first balls into which she rolled the wool.

20. digitis subigebat opus, she plied the work with her fingers. — repetita . . . tractu, she softened by long and repeated combing the flocks of wool that equalled the clouds in lightness; repetita agrees with vellera, lit. the flocks of wool combed repeatedly; tractu refers to the long, steady motion of the comb (or fingers used as a comb).

Fig. 30. 22. levi . . . fusum, twirled with deft thumb the tapering spindle. (See Fig. 30.) Haupt suggests that a line is lost after this, for the weaving ought to be mentioned.

24. quod, i.e. se a Pallade doctam esse. - tantaque offensa magistra, incensed at so great a teacher, i.e. incensed at the idea that she had any teacher, even so great an one as Pallas.

25. victa, if I should be defeated.
26. canos, sc. capillos.

27. baculum, obj. of addit. — in-
firmos artus, obj. of sustinet.
29. quae fugiamus, for us to shun;

Spinner. subj. of purpose (§ 317,2; G.630; H.497, i.); i.e. not all which old age brings with it is disagreeable. — usus, experience.

30. tibi, dat. of agent.
34. torvis, sc. oculis, as aspicit shows.

36. obscuram, disguised. — resecuta est, replied ; resequor is rarely used except by Ovid.

41. profecisse, to have accomplished anything. — eadem, i.e. the sami as before.

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