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Jupiter having taken by lot the empire of the heavens, and Neptune that of the waters.

370. ipsum, Neptune. — regit qui = qui regit.
371. Tartara, etc., why does Tartarus hold aloof ?
372. agitur, is at stake.
373. quae . . . est, such is our endurance.

374. mecum vires Amoris, the power of Love together with me, for my power and that of Love, or Love and I.

375. Pallada, etc. : Pallas (Minerva) and ArFig. 23.

temis (Diana) were virgins, and encouraged chastity.

376. filia, Proserpine. — virgo, predicate.

377. spes adfectat easdem, she cherishes the same hopes as Minerva and Diana.

378. pro socio regno, for the sake of our common power; for Venus and Cupid both represented the power of love, to which Proserpine refused to yield. ,

379. patruo: the patruus is the father's brother; the avunculus, the mother's. Proserpine was daughter of Jupiter and Ceres; hence Pluto was her uncle.

380. arbitrio, abl. of cause (§ 245; G. 408;

H. 416).
Cupid. 381. qua, abl. with acutior ($ 247; G. 398;

H. 417).: 382. magis audiat, is more obedient; characteristic relative clause ($ 320; G. 631, 2; H. 503, i.).

383. opposito genu (abl. abs.), bracing his knee against it.

384. hamata, barbed. — arundine, reed, of which the arrow was made.

385. altae aquae, of deep water.

386. illo, than it (does); a use of the abl. instead of quam with the noun, which is rare in Latin; for the lake (illo) is not compared with the Cayster, but is the subject of audit, to be supplied from audit of v. 387. The corresponding construction is common in Greek. — Caystros: see Book II. 253. The Cayster was famous for its swans, which the ancients thought of as melodious birds.

389. ut velo, as by a veil (referring to the awning which sheltered the Roman amphitheatre from the sun).

390. Tyrios, purple.

391. quo luco (loc. abl.), in this grove ; the relative, where in Eng. lish the demonstrative is necessary ($ 201, e; G. 610; H. 453). – Proser. pina, the Latin corruption of the Greek lepo epóvn; she was identified by the Romans with the Italian goddess Libera.

394. aequales, comrades.

395. simul, at one moment. Diti, dat. of agent ($ 232, a; G. 354; H. 388, 1).

396. usque adeo, to such a degree.
398. summā ab orā, at its upper edge.
402. See Fig. 24.

Fig. 24

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404. obscura ferrugine: all the equipment of Pluto is dark, as becomes the god of the lower world ; so in v. 360 his horses are black.

406. Palicorum: these were two brothers, who presided over some bubbling sulphurous springs near Palike, in Sicily. — ferventia (agreeing with stagna), boiling up through the broken earth.

407. qua ... portus, i.e. the site of Syracuse, between the outer (lesser) and inner (greater) harbors. (See Fig. 25.) — Bacchiadae, the leading family of Corinth, claiming descent from Hercules. Syracuse was a Corinthian colony. — bimari, a common epithet of Corinth, on the isthmus“ between two seas.”

409. medium ... aequor, a sea between Cyane and Arethusa. The fountain Arethusa, on the peninsula (Ortygia) which made the old city of Syracuse, offered the strange phenomenon of fresh water springing up, apparently, from the midst of salt: hence the fable related below (vv. 577641). Cyane was a spring whose waters flowed into the Anapis, and so into the Great Harbor.

410. angustis cornibus, narrow points of land. The “sea” (aequor) is the Great Harbor.


411. hic, adverb; the subject of fuit is Cyane.

413. summā tenus alvo = as far as the waist.

414. nec ... inquit, and said, you shall go no further"; the connective part of nec is taken with inquit, the negative part with ibitis.

416. quod si, but if ; quod is the adverbial accusative ($ 240, 6; G. 338 ; 610, R.2; H. 378, 2).

417. Anapis : the Anapis or Anapus flows into the Great Harbor; a little above its mouth it is joined by the Cy. ane. The marriage of the Nymph and the River-god symbolizes the union of the two streams.

420. Saturnius, son of Saturn, i.e.

Fig. 25


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425. fontis jara : fountains were held to have a sacred character, on which Cyane had presumed too far.

428. modo, but now.

429. extenuatur, she is thinned out, i.e. she wastes away and

changes. — videres, you might have seen, potential subjunctive ($ 311, a, N.2; G. 258; H. 485, N.?).

431. tenuissima quaeque, all the slenderest parts (8 93, d; G. 318, 2; H. 458, 1).

433. membris exilibus: dat. of reference ($ 235, a ; G. 349 to 352; H. 384, 4, N.2).

436. vitiatas, impaired.
437. possis : potential subjunctive ($ 311, a; G. 257; H. 485).
438. matri : dat. of agent, with quaesita est.
439. profundo, deep = sea.

440. udis capillis : Aurora's hair is wet because she is supposed to rise from the sea.

443. inrequieta, never resting.
444. alma dies : dies, day, is sometimes feminine in poetry.

450. dulce, etc., a sweet drink which she had first strewn with parched barley. The plural dulcia is often used for sweetmeats.

453. neque: the negative qualifies epota, which is abl. abs. with parte.

454. liquido, liquid (subst.), i.e. water; she drenched him with barley mixed with water.

458. parvā lacertā, than a small lizard, for the boy was changed into a spotted lizard, one of the smallest species.

459. monstra, the prodigy.

460. petit: the i is long, apparently by contraction for petiit, for the tense is perf.; so also Virgil, Æn. ix. 9.

461. nomen habet, stellio is the Latin name of this species.

463. defuit orbis, the world did not suffice (no part of it was left unsearched).

464. Sicaniam, Sicily. 467. quo, with which. 471. simul [atque], as soon as. — raptam, sc. eam esse. 473. repetita, again and again struck. 474. sit, i.e. Proserpine. 477. saevā manu, with cruel hand. 478. parili agrees with leto. 480. depositum, sc. semen. 481. vulgata, famed : Sicily was in old times “the granary of Rome.”

482. falsa, false to its reputation. — primis in herbis, in the young blade.

484. sideraque: the -que is lengthened before the cæsura; such lengthening of -que occurs sometimes in the second foot, less frequently

in the fifth, and always before a second word to which -que is added. — que ... que, both ... and : the constellations were thought to have an influence upon the crops.

486. inexpugnabile gramen, grass which cannot be rooted up; this, with lolium and tribuli, is the subject of fatigant.

487. Eleis, [waves] of Elis (a district of Greece); Alphējăs, (the nymph] beloved by Alpheius, i.e. Arethusa; cf. vv. 577-641.

491. tibi fidae terrae, the land faithful to you ; the dat. tibi depends upon fidae, terrae upon irascere.

493. nec sum, etc., i.e. it is not affection for my native land, etc.
494. Pisa, a town of Elis.
496. penates, household gods = home.

499. veniet, etc., there will come a suitable time for my story (why 1 vas moved, etc.) when you, etc.

500. curāque ... et vultās melioris, relieved from care, and of more cheerful aspect.

502. cavernas, i.e. of the sea.
503. desueta, i.e. from the long dark journey.
504. lābor, I glide.

506. illa: this and the following nominatives are in appos. with Proserpina, but the insertion of is or was makes smoother English: she was sad, to be sure, and not yet unterrified in expression, but yet queen, etc.

509. ceu saxea, as if turned to stone.

510. ut ... amentia, when her grievous frensy was dispelled by frievous pain.

512. nubila, cloudy, gloomy. 513. invidiosa = full of bitter thoughts. 515. matris, objective gen. 516. cura vilior, a less precious charge. 517. illius, i.e. Proserpine. 519. scire . . . vocas, if you call it finding, to know where she is.

520. quod rapta [est], that she is stolen. · 521. neque ... non est, for your daughter does not deserve a robber for a husband, if she is no longer my daughter, i.e. if I have lost her utterly.

525. injuria, amor, predicate. 526. pudori, dat. of service.

527. tu modo velis, if only thou consent. — ut desint (concessive), though, etc. (8 313; G. 608; H. 515, iii.).

528. quid, quod, etc., what [do you say to this] that, etc. — cetera, other grounds.

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