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59. primos gradus, sc. amoris, which is easily supplied from the following line.

60. taedae, gen. with jurer in lawful marriage. A torchlight procession was a regular part of the nuptial ceremony.

61. quod relates to v. 62.
62. ex aequo captis, equally enslaved.
63. conscius, witness.

65. fissus erat paries, the party-wall was cloven. – duxerat, had got, i.e. the chink had been left in it.

67. id vitium, this defect. — nulli notatum, remarked by no one. 69. fecistis iter, made it a passage. — illud refers to iter.

74. erat, would it have been ; the imperf. ind. where one might expect the pluperf. subj. ($ 311, c; G. 254; R.2; H. 511, N.3). — ut sineres: subjunctive of result, for you to allow.

75. pateres, open far enough.
77. quod, etc., obj. of debere. — amicas, beloved.
78. diversa sede, i.e. parted as they were.
79. parti suae, his own side.
80. contra, to the other.
85. foribus, abl. ($ 258, a, N.3; G. 390, N.3; H. 414, N.1).

87. neve sit errandum, and that they may not have to go wrong, i.e. miss each other.

88. conveniant is still subj. of purpose after ut in v. 84. — lateant (also subj.), conceal themselves. busta Nini, the tomb of Ninus, the husband of Semiramis. Shakespeare says, “ to meet at Ninus' tomb, there, there to woo.”

91. lux, the daylight. tarde discedere visa : their eagerness made the day seem long.

94. vultum, acc. of specification ($ 240, c; G. 338 ; H. 378).
95. pervěnit, sedit: a change from present to perfect.

96. recenti ... rictus, a lioness whose foaming jaws are smeared (oblita) from the fresh slaughter (i.e. with the fresh blood) of cattle (rictus, acc. of specification).

101. fūgit, reliquit, change of tense, which is regular with dum ($ 276, e; G. 229, R.; H. 467, 4); so also redit, laniavit, below.

103. sine ipsa, without (Thisbe) herself.
105. serius, too late for his appointment.

110. nostra, my; nos and noster are often used for ego and meus. — nocens, the guilty one.

III. jussi venires, bade you come. The prose construction would be infinitive.

113. scelerata viscera, guilty flesh.

115. timidi: predicate gen. (§ 214, d; G. 366, R.2; H. 401).optare necem, to wish for death merely instead of killing himself.

117. notae, agreeing with vesti.
119. quo: the antecedent is ferrum.

121. resupinus, fallen back. — humo, loc. abl. for the more usual locative form humi.

122. fistula, a water-pipe. — vitiato plumbo, i.e. from a flaw in the lead.

123. tenui stridente foramine, by a small hissing opening.
124. aera ictibus rumpit, cleaves the air with its spurtings.
130. gestit, is eager.
131. utque, sic, and though, yet.

132. facit incertam, makes her doubtful. pomi, fruit. — haeret, she hesitates (lit. she sticks).

133. tremebunda, quivering.
134. buxo: alluding to the pale yellowish color of the box-tree.

135. exhorruit, shivered. - aequoris, gen. with instar (§ 223, e; G. 373; H. 398, 4).

136. summum, its surface.
138. indignos = immeritos, not deserving it.
139. comas, acc. of specification ($ 240, c; G. 338; H. 378).
142. mihi, from me ($ 229; G. 345, R.?; H. 386, 2).
146. visā illā, having looked upon her.
147. ense: see § 243, d ; G. 405, N.8; H. 414, iii.
148. ebur, ivory scabbard.
149. in unum hoc, for this alone.
150. in vulnera, for (inflicting) wounds.
151. persequar, sc. te.
153. solā, agreeing with morte. — nec, not even.

154. hoc, secondary object ($ 239, C, R.; G. 339, N.*; H. 374, 1). — amborum verbis, in the name of both of us.

155. meus, vocative, the form of which is mi when its noun is expressed; here meus agrees with parens to be supplied from parentes (lit. fathers, mine and his).

157. non invideatis, do not grudge, i.e. grant; as grant is one idea, the two words non invideatis are introduced by ut; otherwise ne, not ut non, would be required.

158. quae arbor, tree, which ($ 200, b; G. 616; H. 445, 9). . 159. es tectura, co-ordinated with tegis, being part of the relative sentence introduced by quae,

165. ater: the fruit of the common mulberry is black when ripe. The morus alba, the fruit of which is white when ripe, was introduced into Europe from China in the Middle Ages, but was unknown to Ovid.

166. rogis, dat. ($ 228; G. 347; H. 389), what remains from the funeral pyres.


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IV. 432. funestā: the berries of the yew were believed to be poisonous, hence the way to Hades is shaded by this “deadly” tree. For a detailed description of the same scenes, see Virgil, Æn. VI. 268-416.

434. iners, sluggish, stagnant.

435. functa sepulchris : only the shades of those who had been duly buried were allowed to cross the Styx.

436. novi manes, the newly arrived shades ; subject of ignorant.

440. fretum, the sea. The sense is: as the sea receives the waters of all rivers, yet never overflows, so the realm of the dead is never overfilled.

444. celebrant, throng; with artes some other verb (e.g. practise) must be supplied. — imi tyranni, the ruler of the nethermost regions.

447. sustinet ire, endures to go, i.e. she goes in spite of the distastefulness of the journey. 449. quo, relative adv. where the de

Fig. 14. monstrative is needed in English ($ 201, e, h; G. 610; H. 453).

451. sorores nocte genitas, the I daughters of Night, i.e. the Furies. (See Fig. 14.)

452. numen : sing. because the three sisters compose one divine agency.

453. adamante, on a seat of adamant.

456. deae, the Furies.

457. Tityos, a giant son of earth, insulted Latona, and was condemned to have his vitals eternally torn by two vul

A Fury. tures.

458. Tantalus, king of Lydia, son of Jupiter, was placed in Hades in a lake, the water of which retreated when he wished to drink; over his head hung fruit, which swung away from his grasp when the torments of hunger forced him to reach for it. His crime was either failure to

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keep the secrets of the gods, or the theft of nectar and ambrosia, or the trial he made of the gods by cooking his son Pelops, and offering the meat to them as food.

460. Sisyphus, son of Æolus, ruler in Ephyra (Corinth), had to roll a great stone up a hill, from the top of which it always rolled down. His crime is also variously recounted; according to one story he informed Asopus that Jupiter had carried off his daughter Ægina.

461. Ixion, a Thessalian ruler, offended Juno, and was fastened for all eternity upon a revolving wheel. (See Fig. 15.)

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463. perdant, subj. of purpose. — Belides: the Danaïdes, the fifty granddaughters of the Egyptian King Belus, slew at the command of their father Danaus their cousins (patruelibus), the fifty sons of Ægyptus, whom they had married (only one, Hypermnestra, saved her husband Lynceus). In the lower world they were forced to pour water continually into a perforated jar.

466. hic e fratribus: Sisyphus and Athamas (as well as Cretheus and Salmoneus) were sons of Æolus.

468. cum conjuge, together with his wife (Ino).

470. quod vellet, erat, what she wished, was; the subjunctive of modesty ($ 311, b; G. 257; H. 486, 1), perhaps used here in part because the indirect question quid velit made the subjunctive seem natural.

471. traherent, subj. of purpose, with ut implied in the preceding ne. 472. confundit in unum, she unites.

474. Tisipbone, Tioipovn, the avenger of slaughter, one of the Furies. - capillos, Greek accusative ($ 240, C; G. 338; H. 378).

476. ambagibus, abl. with opus ($ 243, e; G. 406; H. 414, iv.).

477. facta puta, believe that it is done, i.e. it is as good as done; put yourself at ease.

480. Thaumantias Iris : Iris, daughter of Thaumas and Electra, was the special attendant of Juno. She purifies her by sprinkling water over her, in order that she may not pollute the heavens by entering unpurified from the infernal regions.

481. nec mora, sc. est, there is no delay, i.e. without delay.

483. induitur pallam, she clothes herself in a cloak; induo in the passive is not infrequently used with the accusative; this may be explained as the acc. of specification, or may be derived from the Greek construction of two accusatives with verbs of clothing. The more natural Latin construction would be the abl. like incingitur angue.

485. vultu, abl. of quality ($ 251; G. 400 ; H. 419, ii.).

486. limine, loc. abl. without in ($ 258, 5, 3; G. 385, n.2; H. 425, 2, ii. N.2); the threshold is that of Athamas.

487. Aeolii, Æolian; for Athamas was the son of Æolus. — Avernus, adj., deadly, infernal. .

488. monstris, prodigies.
490. infelix, baneful. – Erinys, Fury.

495. This and the following lines are in close imitation of Virgil, Æn. VII. 346 ff. — abrumpit, snatches. — crinibus, dat. ($ 229; G. 345, R.1; H. 386).

497. Inoos, Athamanteos, adjectives equivalent to genitives.
498. graves animas, baneful breaths.
499. quae sentiat, which is to feel.

500. liquidi monstra veneni, prodigies of liquid poison, i.e. liquid poisons of wonderful kinds.

501. Echidna (Viper) was mother of Cerberus and other monsters.

505. viridi versata cicuta, stirred with a green sprig of (poisonous) hemlock.

506. vergit, pours.

508. face jactata, etc. : to confuse them still more, Tisiphone swings her torch in a circle (per eundem orbem) so continually (saepius) and rapidly that she makes the fire overtake the fire (consequitur ignibus ignes), i.e. before the sparks have died away in one part of the circle the torch reaches the same point again, thus forming a wheel of fire.

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