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5 66.2

70. id, the shaft. — partem in omnem, in every direction.
72. accessit, was added.
75. quique halitus = halitusque qui, the breath which.
76. Stygio, i.e. fearful as the Styx.
77. modo ... interdum, now ... now.
78. cingitur, knots himself; exstat, erects himself.

79. impete, an old form of the ablative (3d declension) : the regular form would be impetu (4th declension), but impětū could not be used in this metre. — concitus imbribus, hurried on (i.e. swollen) by rains.

83. praetenta, held before him.
84. ferro, dative.

88. plagam ... arcebat, by retreating, hindered the blow from sitting (i.e. from striking deep); for the inf. see § 331, 1, 2; G. 548, n.2; H. 505, ii. 2.

91. usque sequens, following up. - eunti, sc. serpenti.

94. gemuit, etc., groaned (like a living thing) that its trunk was lashed by the end of his tail.

95. spatium, the bulk.

98. tu spectabere serpens: Cadmus was afterwards changed to a serpent; see Book IV. 563–614 (argument).

101. fautrix: Pallas is regularly represented as the protectress and guide of heroes in their exploits. She was the goddess of invention and mental energy.

102. motae terrae (dat.), beneath the broken earth.

106. fide majus, an incredible thing! - coepere: the prose form would be coeptae sunt.

108. picto, decorated.
II1. festis, on a holiday.

112. signa, figures, painted on the curtain. The closing of the cur. tain is referred to, which was done from the bottom, not from the top as with us.

113. placido tenore, with quiet (or easy) motion.

117. civilibus bellis, our civil wars, i.e. the strife between men of the same race.

119. eminus: opposed to cominus; the first fell in hand-to-hand conflict; the second, in conflict conducted at a distance, i.e. with missiles.

122. suo marte, in their own fight, i.e. in conflict with each other.

123. subiti, who had suddenly come into being. (Cf. Book I. 315, subitarum campus aquarum.)

125. matrem, i.e. the Earth.
126. quinque superstitibus, abl. abs.

127. humo: this is sometimes used by the poets instead of the locative humi, or, as here, the acc. humum. — Tritonidis : Tritonis is an epithet of Minerva, derived from the brook Triton in Boeotia. (See note on Book II. v. 782.)

128. fraternae pacis, peace among the (surviving) brothers.

129. Sidonius: as Sidon was a chief town of Phænicia, Sidonian is equivalent to Phænician.

132. soceri, parents-in-law; Hermione (or Harmonia), daughter of Mars and Venus, was wife of Cadmus.

133. huc, to this.

135. juvenes, youths ; not pueri, boys : Cadmus lived to see his grandchildren grow up. — sed ... debet: “Call no man happy until he dies,” a favorite maxim of ancient wisdom. In the myth of Cadmus we may recognize a genuine tradition of the trading settlements and factories established by Phænicians in very early times, along the coast of Greece. From them the rude Greeks received the first beginnings of civilization, especially the knowledge of the alphabet. Many religious rites were likewise borrowed from them, especially some forms of the worship of Herakles (Hercules, the Phænician Melkart) and Aphrodite (Astarte), or Venus.


III. 138. prima agrees with causa; secundas with res. 139. aliena, belonging to another race, strange.

140. satiatae, fem. agreeing with canes, for the names of animals are much more frequently fem. in Latin than in English.

141. quaeras, subj. of the less vivid future condition, though the apodosis invenies is fut. ind. — fortunae crimen, fault of fortune. in illo, in him, i.e. Actæon.

145. ex aequo, equally, lit. from an equal point (of view). — meta utraque, from each goal. At each end of the course in the circus was a conical goal; the course of the sun is here compared with the race-course.

146. juvenis Hyantius, the Hyantian (Boeotian) youth, i.e. Actæon. 150. cum, conjunction.

152. distat idem, is the same distance from. creta : Cretan earth (i.e. chalk) was used to mark the goals or metae ; hence creta = meta; cf. v. 145. — vaporibus, heat, as in Book I. v. 432.

155. acuta, sharp, referring to the foliage of the cypress.

156. nomine, abl. of specification (§ 253; G. 397; H. 424). — Gargaphie, a valley extending from Mt. Cithæron in the direction of

Thebes. — succinctae, high-girded, i.e. Fig. 12.

wearing a short tunic, which would not impede her motions. (See Fig. 12.)

159. pumice vivo, of living (i.e. nat. ural) pumice-stone (abl. of material, § 244, 2, N.1; G. 396; H. 415, iii.).

160. duxerat, had drawn, i.e. formed.

162. hiatus, Greek accusative ($ 240 c; G. 338; H. 378).'

165. quo, whither; but here, as frequently, the Latin uses the relative where the English does not.

166. retentos, from retendo.

167. subjecit bracchia: she caught it in her arms as the goddess took it off.

168. doctior illis, more skilful than

they, and therefore employed in service de. Diana.

manding more skill.

169. Ismenis: a patronymic from Ismenus, a stream in Boeotia.

170. solutis, sc. capillis; abl. of quality ($ 251; G. 400; H. 419, i.).

171. Nephele, Cloud; Hyle, Wood; Rhanis, Rain-drop; Psecas, Shower ; Phiale, Bowl : all Greek words. Crocale, above, means Seashore.

172. capacibus urnis : belongs with both verbs.

173. Titania: Diana is called Titania because she is identified with the goddess of the inoon, Selene, who was the daughter of the Titan Hyperion.

174. dilata parte: the continuation of the hunt was postponed until the next day; cf. v. 150.

177. qui: here again the Latin relative must be rendered by the English demonstrative.

178. sicut erant, nudae, naked as they were.

183. qui: the antecedent is to be supplied from is in v. 185. — adversi, turned toward them.

184. solet: a short final syllable is sometimes treated as if long in the cæsura of the third foot before et or aut, and also in any thesis when fol. lowed by a Greek word. — purpureae aurorae: Ovid allows hiatus after the thesis of the fifth foot when the foot is spondaic or when a Greek word follows.


188. ut, sic: although, still. habuisse: perf. inf. where the pres. is more usual. So in English one might say she wished she had had.

192. tibi: dat. of agent ($ 232, a; G. 354; H. 388, 1). — narres : depends upon licet without ut ($ 331, i, n.3; G. 607; H. 501, i. 1, 502).

194. vivacis: the stag was believed to live through thirty-six generations of men. Ancient artists generally represented this first stage of Actæon's metamorphosis, in which the man has the stag's antlers. (See Fig. 13.)

198. Autonoeius : Autono, daughter of Cadmus, was Actæon's mother. 199. se tam celerem: sc. esse (see $ 333, b; G. 542, R.; H. 535, iii.).

202. vox illa fuit: i.e. that the groan) was all the voice he had. — ora non sua, features not his own, because his face was changed to that of a stag.

204. faciat: deliberative subjunctive ($ 268; G. 265; H. 484, v.); so also repetat and lateat.

206. Melampus, Black-foot ; Ichnobates, Trail-goer; Pamphagus, All-devourer ; Dorceus, Quick-sighted; Oribasus, Mountain-wanderer, Nebrophonus, Fawn-slayer; Laelaps, Whirlwind; Theron, Hunter, Pterelas, Winged; Agre, Huntress; Hylaeus, Silvan; Nape, Glen; Poemenis, Shepherdess; Harpyia, Ravager; Ladon, Strong ; Dromas, Runner; Canace, Crasher; Sticte, Spotted; Tigris, Tigress; Alce, Courage ; Leucon, White; Asbolus, Soot; Aello, Wind-blast; Thous, Swift; Cyprio, Cyprian ; Lycisce, Wolfy; Harpalos, Seizer; Mela. neus, Black ; Lachne, Fur; Labros, Furious; Agriodus, Wild-tooth ; Hylactor, Barker, and below, Melanchaetes, Black-haired; Theridamas, Game-subduer ; Oresitrophus, Mountain-bred: all these names are Greek.

208. Gnosius, Spartana: the Cretan and Laconian hounds were excellent hunters.

216. substricta, close-bound, i.e. slender, as those of swift hounds are.

218. villis, abl. of quality ($ 251; G. 400; H. 419, ii.) : both adjectives agree with it.

219. cursu: abl. of specification ($ 253; G. 397; H. 424).

221. frontem : Greek accusative ($ 240, c; G. 338; H. 378). — medio ab albo, from the white in the middle.

222, corpore, abl. of specification.
223. Dictaeo, Laconide: see note on v. 208.
224. acutae vocis, gen. of quality ($ 215; G. 365; H. 396, v.).
225. est, would be (§ 311, c; G. 254; R.1; H. 511).
226. aditu, abl. with carentia (§ 243; G. 405; H. 414).

227. difficilis, sc. via.

228. fugit per quae loca: the antecedent loca is incorporated in the relative clause ($ 200; G. 616; H. 445, 9); he flees through places through which he had often followed.

229. famulos, i.e. his dogs.

238. quem tamen, still such as. — possit, subj. after the characteristic relative ($ 320; G. 631, 1; H. 503. i.).

240. similis roganti, like a suppliant; suppliants held out their arms in prayer, and Actæon tried to express supplication by the motions of his face.

Fig. 13

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247. vellet: potential subjunctive, i.e. apodosis of an omitted condition contrary to fact ($ 311, b; G. 257, N.2; H. 486).


The reader will remember this story as presented in “MidsummerNight's Dream.”

IV. 56. praelata, preferred before : most excellent among.

58. Semiramis, wife of Ninus, and founder of Babylon. — coctilibus, of burnt brick.

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