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380. quae, the antecedent is flumina. — colat, subjunctive of purpose, to live in. — contraria, opposed to.

381. expers (ex-pars), devoid. — squalidus, in mourning.

382. cum deficit orbem, when he fails the world, i.e. in an eclipse (on the acc. see § 227, a; G. 346, n.3).

385. aevi limits principiis.
387. actorum mihi, things done by me; dat. of agent.
388. quilibet, whoever will.

390. ipse, Jupiter. -- agat, let him drive them himself. - ut saltem, that, at least.

391. ponat, lay aside.
392, expertus, when he has tried.
393. meruisse, sc. eum, antecedent of qui.

400. objectat, throws at them as a reproach; imputat, bears resentment against them as offenders. - natum = his son's death.


II. 761. petit: the subject is Minerva (see Introduction to this selection). – hujus, i.e. Invidiae. ' 763. tristis, nominative. — quae vacet, one which is empty; subjunctive of characteristic ($ 320; G. 631, 1; H. 503, i.).

764. igne, abl. of separation (§ 243, a; G. 405; H. 414). — caligine, abl. of means ($ 248, 5, 2; G. 405, N.; H. 421, ii.).

765. belli metuenda, to be feared in war; the gen. is poetic (see § 218, c; G. 411, R.2; H. 399, iii.).

766. neque enim fas habet, for ske does not think it right; as a goddess, Minerva could not with propriety enter the dwelling of such a being as Envy.

767. extrema cuspide, with the point of her spear ($ 193; G. 291, R.2 ; H. 440, N.2).

769. alimenta: her own venomous nature is nourished by this venomous food.

770, visa, abl.; as soon as she has seen her, she turns her eyes away from her.

771. pigre, lazily, adv.

773. ut, with the indicative, as or when. — forma armisque, abl. of specification (§ 253; G. 397; H. 424).

774. ingemuit, etc., from envy. — vultum ... duxit, she drew her face down to her deepest sighs, i.e. she sighed and made a long face.

776. acies, glance of the eye. Envy can look no one in the face. – nusquam, nowhere, is here used to mean in no direction.

778. nisi quem, except (the laugh) which. 780. ingratos, unpleasant (to her), hated.

781. carpit ... una, she gnaws others, and is herself gnawed at the same time, i.e. she spoils the happiness of others, and makes herself unhappy. una is the adv.

782. oderat: the subject is Tritonia, the same as that of affata est. Minerva derived the epithet Tritonia from the brook Triton in Boeotia, near which her worship was established in early times. Later stories connect the name with the Libyan river Triton. — quamvis belongs with oderat. — tamen qualifies affata est.

786. reppulit, spurned, struck, i.e. as she sprang up toward heaven.

788. successurum, sc. esse, that success is to come to Minerva. Envy is willing enough to harm Aglauros, but is sorry that by so doing she fulfils the wish of Minerva.

794. Tritonida arcem, the citadel of Tritonia, i.e. Athens, which was sacred to Minerva (Athena).

795. ingeniis, intellects, i.e. men of genius. The glory of the historical Athens is here transferred to mythical times.


II. 833. has, referring to the punishment of Aglauros (see heading).

834. cepit = had inflicted: the poena is, in its original sense, a fine or forfeit. — Atlantiades: the mother of Mercury was Maia, daughter of Atlas. — dictas a Pallade: Pallas, “the brandisher,” is an epithet of Athena (Minerva), tutelary divinity of Athens.

835. pennis: Mercury is represented with a winged cap (petasus), and winged sandals (talaria).

836. genitor, Jupiter. — causam amoris = love as his motive. 838. solito cursu, i.e. the air, his accustomed path.

839. quae: the antecedent is hanc, v. 841; so the antecedent of quod, v. 841, is armentum, v. 842. — tuam matrem suspicit, looks up to thy mother. Maia is one of the stars in the group of Pleiades. — a parte sinistra: on the left, etc., i.e. towards the East. Jupiter is look. ing from Mt. Olympus.


840. Sidonida, i.e. Phoenicia,“ the land of Sidon.”

843. jamdudum: expresses the promptness of Mercury's obedience. So, among some very courteous populations, if you ask for any favor, the answer will be, “ It is done already.”

844. filia : Europa, “the broad brow,” daughter of the Eastern king, is one of the numerous names given to the Dawn in the Greek mythology. The “ dawn” of civilization rises upon the western world from Asia. For the significance of this fable, see introductory note to the next selection.

845. comitata, accompanied; the perf. part. of some deponent verbs has, especially in poetry, passive signification.

846. non bene conveniunt, are not very consistent. — morantur, reside.

848. deum, gen. plur., a shorter form for deorum. - cui, dat. of reference ($ 235, a; G. 350, 1; H. 384, 4, N.).

849. nutu : so Zeus “nodded with his dark brows and shook great Olympus ” (II. i. 528-30).

850. induitur faciem, he clothes himself in the form ($ 240, C, N.; G. 338, n.2; H. 377); here induitur has a reflexive meaning = induit sibi, like the middle voice in Greek.

852. vestigia ... auster; i.e. the snow is new-fallen.

854. toris, with the swell of muscles. -- armis (from armus), from his shoulders, the place where the fore-legs join the body.

855. contendere possis, you might maintain.

856. facta manu, made oy (human) hand, i.e. artificial.

Fig. 10. 858. Agenore: see heading.

859. formosus, sc. sit. — minetur; subj. because expressing the thought not of the poet, but of Europa ($ 321, 2; 341, d; G. 541; H. 516, ii.).

860. metuit contingere: on the complementary inf. with verbs of fearing, etc., see § 271; G. 423; H. 533.

867. palpanda, impedienda; gerundive expressing purpose ($ 294, d; G.

Europa. 430; H. 544, 2, N.2).

871. falsa, i.e. not his own.

874. dextrā tenet: the picture as here described was familiar to the poet on gems, etc. Similar is the vase painting reproduced in Fig. 10.

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III. 1. deus: Jupiter.

2. Dictaea : Dicte is a mountain in the eastern part of Crete. The Phænicians, in very ancient times, were colonists and traders among the Grecian islands. Several of the divinities worshipped by the Greeks were probably introduced by them. The fable of Europa may perhaps point to such a settlement in Crete, with the introduction of cattle from Asia. The heifer which guides Cadmus would thus have the same signification in the story as the bull which bears away Europa.

3. perquirere, to search everywhere.

5. pius et sceleratus, " tender” towards his daughter, and “guilty” towards his son.

7. furta, deceptions.
8. Phoebi oracula, i.e. at Delphi, in Phocis, near Boeotia.
10. solis in arvis, in solitary pastures.

11. passa: cows as well as oxen were trained to the yoke, as on the continent of Europe now.

12. herbā, on the grass.

13. fac condas ($ 331, f. R.; G. 271; H. 499, 2). - Boeotia, connected with Bous, Lat. bos. — vocato: future imperative.

14. Castalio: the oracle of Apollo was in a cave of Mt. Parnassus whence flowed the Castalian fount.

15. videt, sc. cum; cf. Book II. v. 47.
16. servitii signum, sign of servitude, i.e. mark of the yoke.

17. presso, restrained, slow; he could not walk faster than the heifer he was following.- legit, traces; lit. picks up, apparently the original meaning of the word.

18. auctorem viae, who had advised him about his way.
19. Panopes (gen.), an old town on the Cephisus.
20. cornibus altis, abl. of specification ($ 253; G. 397; H. 424).
21. impulit auras, stirred the air.
22. terga, plur. for sing.
24. oscula figit, imprints kisses.

27. libandas, to be drawn (cf. libatos, Book I. v. 371); for the gerundive, see $ 294, d; G. 430; H. 544, 2, N.2

30. humilem arcum, a low arch.

31. antro, loc. abl. ($ 258, f, 3; G. 385, n.1; H. 425, 2, n.2). The serpent was hidden in the cave, but also by (means of) the cave, so that the abl. is here properly instrumental as well as locative.

- 480


. 485.2

32. Martius, sacred to Mars.

35. quem ... gradu, when the men descended from Tyrian race had reached this grove with hapless step. Tyre was a colony of Sidon, but became far more famous and powerful than its mother city.

38. caeruleus, livid.
41. nexibus, folds; orbes, coils.

43. media plus parte, more than half his length; the full form would be plus quam media parte (abl. of specification, $ 253; G. 397; H. 424), but quam is here omitted, as it regularly is after plus, minus, Ý 80 amplius, longius ($ 247, c; G. 296, R.4; H. 417, n.2).

471.14 44. tanto corpore, abl. of quality ($ 251; G. 402; H. 419, ii.). 423.2

45. geminas . . . Arctos: the great constellation of the dragon. qui, the one which.

46. nec mora, sc. est, and there is no delay, i.e. without delay.
48. hos, illos, hos: all objects of necat.
50. sol altissimus, the sun at its height, i.e. at noon.
53. telum, sc. erat.
54. praestantior, more excellent.
56. supra, adverb. - spatiosi corporis, descriptive genitive.

59. molarem, sc. lapidem, a stone as big as a millstone. (See Fig. 11.)

Fig. 11.

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62. mota forent, might have been shaken.
63. loricae modo, after the manner of (i.e. like) a coat of mail.
66. lentae, pliant. — medio curvamine, in the middle of the coil.
69. vulnera: plur. for sing., as often in poetry.

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