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32. victa est: according to the original form of the story, the maiden was actually sacrificed; but it was asterwards modified in this way, in order to satisfy the popular sympathies. (See Fig. 55.)

33. sacri, the sacred rite.

34. mutasse, to have exchanged. — Mycenida: Iphigenia's home was Mycena. cerva, for a hind ($ 252, c; G. 404, N.1; H. 422, n.2).

36. Phoebes, as well as maris, limits ira. 39. orbe medio, in the middle of the world. 40. triplicis mundi, the three worlds, of heaven, earth, and hades. 41. quamvis regionibus, by however wide spaces (abl. of specification). 43. tenet, sc. locum. 46. tota, sc. domus. 47. fremit, murmurs. — refert, re-echoes. 52. extrema, the last rumblings. 53. leve vulgus, i.e. milia rumorum.

54. mixta and commenta agree with milia; the genitive agreeing with rumorum would be equally natural.

56. quibus relates to rumorum.
61. dubio auctore, abl. of quality.
62. ipsa, i.e. Fama. — rerum, partitive genitive, limits quid.

68. Protesilaë: Protesilaus, a Thessalian, the first of the Greeks who fell at Troy: this had been foretold by an oracle. — magno stant, cost dear ($ 252; G. 404; H. 422).

69. fortis animae (genitive, limiting nece), by the death of Protesilaus, that valiant soul. cognitus (sc. est) Hector, i.e. they became acquainted with Hector and found out what sort of a man he was.

71. Sigēa, Sigean ; Sigeum is the northwestern point of Asia Minor, at the mouth of the Dardanelles (Hellespont), near the site of Troy.

72. Cygnus, king of Colonæ, near Troy: he was invulnerable, as being a son of Neptune.

74. Peliacae : its shaft was taken from the forests of Mt. Pelion, in Thessaly, near the home of Achilles. (See Il. xix. 390.)

77. Hector, i.e. his death. — colla, acc. of specification. 81. Haemonio, Thessalian. 82. Aeacides: Æacus was the father of Peleus, father of Achilles. 84. profecit, sc. Aeacides. 86. nate dea: Achilles was son of the sea-goddess Thetis. 87. ille, Cygnus. — quid, why. 89. parma (appos. with onus), a small round buckler. 90. decor, i.e. only ornament. 91. ob hoc, for this reason.

93. qui, sc. eo, i.e. Neptune.

96. aes, etc. : the shield was composed of ten thicknesses of hide covered with a plate of copper.

97. novena, used here for the cardinal number. - orbe, circle of hide. 100. apertum, exposed. 102. circo, i.e. the arena of the amphitheatre.

104. elusa . .. sensit, perceived that his blow had missed ; i.e. the red cloth, held out to excite the bull, gave way when he plunged against it.

106. haerebat, sc. ferrum. — manus, i.e. not the weapon. 108. Lyrnesia, he had captured the city Lyrnesos in Mysia. 109. Tenedon, Tenedos, a small island off the coast of Troy.

110. Thebas, a city of Mysia, ruled by king Eetion, father of Andromache.

III. Caïcus, a river of Mysia, where he wounded Telephus, son of Hercules, and afterwards healed him by the application of rust from his spear.

112. opus, efficacy: once in the wound, and once in the healing.
113. per litus, along the shore.
115. ante actis, what he had done vefore.

118. quo plangente, abl. abs. — moribundo vertice, abl. of instrument.

121. in hoc, in respect to this one, i.e. Cygnus.
I25. qua, Cohere.
127. sanguis: final is in this word was originally long.
130. cavari, indented.
131. laedi, blunted.
132. retecto, pulling off, i.e. the shield of Cygnus (abl. abs.).

137. aversos, turned away, i.e. from the direction in which he was going= as he went backwards.

138. quem relates to lapis. — impulsum agrees with Cygnum.
140. praecordia = pectus.
141. vincla, bands. subdita, bound beneath.

145. cujus, etc., whose name he formerly bore, i.e. into a swan (cygnum). The transformation of another Cygnus into a swan is described in Book II. v. 367 ff.

XXVIII. THE TALE OF GALATEA.

469.2

473.2

XIII. 750. Fauno, Faunus, an Italian god of the woods and fields, usually identified with the Greek Pan (here abl. of source; § 244, a; G. 395; H. 415, ii.). — Symaethide, daughter of Symæthus, a river of Sicily.

752, nostra, mine ; Galatea tells the story.

753. octonis iterum, twice eight. The ablatives in this line are ablatives of quality ($ 251; G. 400; H. 419, ii.).

755. Cyclops: a misshapen race, sons of Poseidon; they had but one eye, which was in the middle of the forehead. This one was named Polyphemus. — fine, here feminine, is usually masculine.

759. ille, the Cyclops. Fig. 56.

760. silvis, dative.

761. magni cum dis Olympi, of great Olympus together with the gods, i.e. gods and all.

765. rastris : Polyphemus is so huge that he uses a rake for a comb and a scythe (falce) for a razor.

769. tutae, etc. : see the story of the adventures of Ulysses and of Æneas with the Cyclops, in the third book of Virgil's Æneid, 558 etseg.

771. nulla, etc.: he was a soothsayer, who interpreted the flight of birds.

773. Ulixes: this story is told by Homer, Od. ix. 289-397 (Bryant's transl., 325 ff.).

775. altera, i.e. Galatea has blinded him with love. — vera, object of monen

tem, which is object of spernit. Galatea and Polyphemus.

776. litora, when he might hope to

see the Nereid Galatea.
780. medius, on the middle of the wedge-shaped hill, which com-
manded an extensive view of the sea.

783. apta, i.e. as the mast of a ship.
784. centum: not of seven, as was the pipe used by ordinary mor als.

785. senserunt, felt, i.e. trembled with. His pastoral whisperings (pastoria sibila) were so loud as to shake earth and sea.

[graphic]

791. lascivior, more playful; the kid is frequently mentioned as an example of playfulness.

798. eadem Galatea, yet the same Galatea.

800. lentior, originally flexible, and hence hard to break, tough, and as applied to character, hard to influence, perverse.

803. fetā, with young.

805. vellem, subj. of modesty ($ 311, 6; G. 258, n.1; H. 486, 1). — 556 possem, expressing the purpose of vellem ($ 267,c; G. 261, R; H. 499, 2). 5657364. I.

806. claris latratibus, at loud barking.

808. noris (i.e. noveris), sc. me; perfect subjunctive in a less vivid future (future perfect) condition ($ 307, c; G. 596; H. 509).

576.1 809. labores, verb.

810. pars montis, appos. with antra. — pendentia, lit. hanging; then arched because an arch or vault seems to hang unsupported in the air. — vivo saxo, of living rock.

811. quibus, loc. abl. for in quibus.

819. deerunt, dissyllabic, as those forms of desum in which de is followed by er usually are.

820. arbutei fetus: see note on Book I. 104. 821. multae, sc. oves, the idea being implied in pecus. 824. pauperis, predicate genitive ($ 214, d; G. 366, R.; H. 401). 438*447

826. ut, etc., how they can hardly get round their distended udders with their legs, i.e. can hardly move their legs between which the distended udders hang

827. fetura minor, a younger generation, appos. with agni.

829. inde= ex eo= ejus. • 830. liquefacta coagula, steeped rennet : the English would prefer here a passive construction, part is curdled with rennet. Rennet is made from the stomachs of calves; and when steeped and softened in water is used to curdle milk preparatory to making cheese.

833. par-vě: the adverb from parvus (if there were one) would be parvē.

840. liquidae aquae, in clear (or calm) water.

844. nescio quem: Polyphemus is represented as so rude as not even to recognize the existence of the gods.

852. haec omnia, all nature.
853. orbis (= oculus), sc. est.
854. genitor, the father of Polyphemus was Neptune.
858. Neres, Greek vocative.

859. contemptūs, genitive depending upon patientior ($ 218, ? , G. 375; H. 399, ii.).

863. quod, i.e. placeat; let him please himself, and he shall be free to please you, which (i.e. though) I should wish he did not. — modo copia detur, sc. mihi; only let me have an opportunity, and he shall feel, etc.

864. pro, in proportion to.
867. laesus, stirred up.

868. cumque ... meo, i.e. I seem to have Ætna with all its fire in my bosom.

875. veneris, love. — ista . . . vestrae, the whole clause is object 571:31?)

of faciam ($ 332; G. 553; H. 501, ii. 1) with omission of ut (H. 502).

879. Symaethius: the mother of Acis was the nymph Syməthis. 880. parentes, vocative.

883. extremus, only the exFig. 57.

tremity.

884. angulus montis, corner of a mountain, i.e. the huge rock thrown

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885. quod solum, the only thing which. per fata, with the permission of the fates.

886. avitas, of his grandsire, the river god Symæthus.

894. cornua (acc. of specification): horns were the regular at

tributes of river-gods; they were Young river-god.

symbols of strength. (See Fig. 57.) 895. caerulus, the color of the sea, and hence attributed to deities of the water.

XXIX. THE DEIFICATION OF ROMULUS.

XIV. 772. proximus, next after Proca, who is mentioned in v. 622. - Ausonias, Italian. — miles Amuli, the soldiery of Amulius, i.e. the warlike Amulius.

773. nepotum munere, as a gift from his grandsons (lit. by the favor of his grandsons); they were Romulus and Remus.

774. Parilibus: the festival of Pales, goddess of flocks and herds. This festival occurred April 21, which was regarded as the day of the foundation of Rome. See the first selection from the Fasti. The 1 in Pales is changed to r.

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