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158. liberat arboribus (abl.): the head of the god is quaintly conceived as covered with trees, so as to obstruct his hearing. - quercu, an oak-wreath.

160. deum pecoris : Pan, the nature god, was guardian of flocks.
162. barbarico, i.e. as being in Phrygian style.
164. sua, i.e. which crowned it.

166. verrit humum, he sweeps the ground. - palla, a poetical form for pallium, the outer garment worn by Greeks; it was rectangular, while the Roman toga was rounded at the ends.

167. dentibus Indis, ivory.

168. a laeva, on the left side ($ 260, b; G. 390, n.6; H. 434, i. 1.). - 483,4 plectrum, the instrument with which the strings of the lyre were touched in playing

169. artificis, artist. — status, his very posture. 171. summittere, i.e. in token of inferiority. 174. unius, alone. — Delius, Apollo, who was born at Delos. 176. in spatium, lengthwise. 177. imas, at the base. 178. in, in respect to. 179. aures : on the acc. see § 240, C, N.; G. 338, 2, N.2; H. 377. bor

180. turpi pudore, abl. of cause with temptat velare, on account of the shameful disgrace.

181. tiaris, a high cap, bound under the chin, worn by Oriental monarchs.

187. haustae= effossae.

192. agricolam: so called because he had, so to speak, planted the secret in the earth.


XI. 583. morte, abl. depending upon functo ($ 249; G. 407; H. 421, i.); functo morte=mortuo. — rogari, object of sustinet; she 977.L. does not endure being asked.

584. funestas, defiled by death; for a family in which there was an unburied corpse was unclean, and Alcyone's husband was a corpse although she did not yet know it..

585. Iri: Iris was the goddess of the rainbow (see v. 589 ff.), and acted as Juno's messenger.

587. imagine, in the form, abl. of quality limiting somnia ($ 251; G. 400; H. 419, i.). - mittat: subjunctive after jube; for jubeo implies 773.2 407

the idea of saying, and may therefore take the construction of indirect discourse; the command to Somnus was: mitte somnia.

589. velamina, accusative (see § 240, C, N.; G. 338, 2, N.?; H. 377). 590, arcuato: three syllables, the u being pronounced like w.

591. jussi regis, of the king commanded, i.e. mentioned in the command.

592. Cimmerios, a people dwelling in the region of perpetual darkness, which the ancients imagined to be in the extreme West.

594. radiis, with his rays.
597. vigil ales, i.e. the cock.

599. sagacior anser: the watchful sagacity of the goose was especially displayed in the preservation of the Capitol from the Gauls, B.C. 390.

603. Lethes (genitive): the river Lethe is generally placed in the nether world, where Virgil puts the abode of dreams; Homer, however, (Od. xi.) puts the abode of the dead in the extreme West, where Ovid puts Lethe and the dwelling of Somnus. The dead, Sleep, and Lethe all belong in the realm of darkness, which was by some supposed to be in the West, by others, under the earth. 605. papavera: the poppy, from which opium is made, induces sleep.

610. ebeno sublimis, built kigh with ebony. Fig. 54.

612. quo, loc. abl., on which.
616. simul=simul atque. — virgo, i.e. Iris.
618. sacra, as the dwelling of the god Somnus.

621. excussit sibi se, roused himself from himself, i.e. from sleep.

626. quae ... aequent, relative clause of result ($ 319, 2; G. 631, 1; H. 500, i.).

627. Herculea Trachine, loc. abl., where one would expect the acc. after adeant. Trachis is called Herculean because Hercules spent the last part of his life there, and was burned on the neighboring mountain, Eta.

628. adeant: see note on v. 587 above.

630. vaporis, the heavy air, impregnated with sleep-giving odors.

633. pater, Somnus. (See Fig. 54.) Sleep-god.

635. Morphea, Morpheus (from the Greek uopoh, form), the god of dream-forms. — non alter, no second one, i.e. no other.

640. hunc, i.e. the alter just mentioned. — Icelon, a Greek word, meaning like. — Phobetora: a Greek word, meaning terrifier.



642. Phantasos, the god of phantasies and apparitions. This name also is Greek.

647. Thaumantidos, Iris, daughter of Thaumas.

652. Haemoniam, Thessalian : Trachis was in Thessaly, which was called Hæmonia after Hæmon, father of Thessalus.

662. falso ... noli, do not vainly expect me to return (lit. do not falsely promise me to yourself).

669. lugubria, sad things, i.e. garments of mourning.

670. inania, because the shades in the lower world had no substance, and could not fill the place.

672. crederet: subjunctive in a clause of characteristic ($ 320; G. con 631, 1; H. 503, i.).

678. si sit illic, if he is there; in indirect questions, si, like English if, means whether.

684. nulla, etc., Alcyone is no more, i.e. I am as good as dead.
685. tollite, etc., away with your words of consolation.
688. sed et umbra, but even though a mere shade, still, etc.

696. vellem, subjunctive of modesty ($ 311,6; G. 258, n.1; H. 486, i.); 556 with duxisses, it is equivalent to utinam duxisses ($ 267,c; G. 261, R.). 558.4

697. multum utile, very useful. fuit, it would have been (8 308, c; G. 599, R.3; H. 476, 5).

525.2. 699. non simul, not together, i.e. apart from you. — egissem, i.e. if I had gone with you. — discreta, separated from yours.

700. absens, parted from thee. — perii, etc.: she feels that she is as good as dead and drowned (cf. v. 684), now that her husba:ad is no more. ; 703. pugnem superesse, struggle to survive.

706. littera, inscription; she would have his name inscribed upon her tomb, though his body could not be laid there.

714. quae, relative where the demonstrative is needed in English. — locis = in his locis. — acta, sc. esse.

716. nescio quid, something.

718. aberat: the indicative after quamvis is used by poets and late writers ($ 313, g; G. 606, n.1; H. 515, N.3).

1. 586. II. 2 719. omine: the body of a shipwrecked man, seen just at this place after the vision of the preceding night, was an omen of the shipwreck and death of her husband.

722. quo magis . . . hoc minus, the more ... the less ($ 250, R.; G. 403; H. 423).

723. minus et minus est mentis, less and less she has (est, sc. ei) of her mind, i.e. more and more beside herself she becomes.



724. posset, subjunctive of result (§ 319, 2; G. 631, 2; H. 500, i.).

729. facta manu moles, not a natural promontory, but an artificiai breakwater.

732. modo natis, newly grown.

734. maesto (dative), sc. sono: ancient writers frequently speak of the mournful note of the kingfisher.

735. tenui rostro (abl. of means): the kingfisher's beak is long and slender.

742. alite, into a bird; the abl. of means (or price) is used with verbs of exchanging ($ 252, c; G. 404, n.!; H. 422, n.2). — fatis obnoxius isdem, subject to the same fate ; obnoxius agrees with amor, though in sense it refers to Ceyx and Alcyone.

744. coeunt, they mate.

745. perque dies, etc. : the ancients believed that the kingfisher brooded for seven days in winter upon a floating nest, and that throughout those days the sea was always calm. Hence the expression dies halcyonides, halcyon days, applied to fair weather or prosperous times. Perhaps the story of the floating nest is due to the fact that the kingfisher's nest is built among the rocks low down by the sea, and is sometimes washed off by the waves.

748. nepotibus, the descendants of Alcyone, daughter of Æolus.


XII. 1. Aesacon, acc., subject of vivere; the acc. and inf. depends upon nescius.

2. nomen (not corpus] : it was called a cænotaph (empty tomb).

3. inferias, offerings to the dead: they are called inanes, because Æsacus was still living, although they did not know it.

4. Paridis : Paris was absent on his visit to Lacedæmon, whence he brought back Helen, — the cause of the Grecian expedition against Troy (the conjuratae rates).

7. commune, union or combined power.

10. Aulide: Aulis, in Boeotia, was the meeting-place of the fleet, and here they were detained for several weeks by adverse winds.

16. damna, loss, i.e. her young.

19. Thestorides, Calchas, son of Thestor, the chief soothsayer of the Grecian host.

21. digerit, divides off, i.e. by way of interpretation.

22. ille, the serpent.
23. superat, remains.
24. Aoniis, Bæotian.
25. bella, i.e. the host, by metonymy.

28. virginis deae, Diana. Agamemnon had killed a hind consecrated to her, and so his daughter Iphigenia must be sacrificed by way of atonement.

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29. pietatem, fatherly love.

30. rexque patrem, the king overcame the father, i.e. Agamemnon's duty as a king overcame his paternal affection.

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