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635. eras, where esses might be expected ($ 308, b; G. 597, R.?; H. 511).

636. utque rudis, as (i.e. like) an inexperienced maiden.

637. facit: the indicative in an indirect question is common in early Latin, but is almost inexcusable in Ovid.

639. me, Venus, who tells the story.

648. comam, acc. of specification. — ramis crepitantibus, abl. of quality.

649. hinc: construe with decerpta, and forte with ferebam.
652. carcere, from the barrier.

660. gaudeat, indirect question, the first half of the double question of which an, etc., is the second half.

668. spectacula, the place whence people looked on, the field.
675. ab obliquo, obliquely.


XI. 1. carmine, the stories of Ganymede, Hyacinthus, etc. (See the two previous selections.)

3. nurus (plur.), often used for women of rank. — Ciconum, a Thracian tribe. — lymphata, frenzied.

4. pectora, acc. of specification. The Bacchae clothed themselves in doe-skins at the Bacchic festivals.

5. percussis ... nervis, accompanying his Fig. 50.

song with striking the strings.

7. nostri contemptor, the man who despises us : after the death of Eurydice, Orpheus had withdrawn from the society of women, — a sufficient reason for the hostility of the female wor. shippers of Bacchus.

8. Apollinei : Orpheus was the son of Apollo and the muse Calliope.

9. foliis : the thyrsus, carried by Bacchus and his votaries, was a staff (hasta), adorned at the

top with ivy or with a pine-cone. (See Figs. 50 Thyrsus.

and 51.) — notam, mark, i.e. bruise.

12. veluti supplex: the stone, overcome by the music, fell like a suppliant at the feet of Orpheus, begging his pardon for having come through the air against him.

13. sed enim: there is an ellipsis after sed; but it was no use, for, etc. Such ellipses are common in Latin and Greek (etenim, namque, kal gáp årrà góp), but in English we generally say simply but or for, whichever seems to be the more important.

14. abiīt: see note on subiit, Book I. v. 114. 15. mollita, i.e. like this stone.

16. infracto, curved. The Phrygian pipe — called Berecyntian, from Berecyntus, the chief seat of the worship of Cybele — was curved at the end into the shape of a horn.

17. plausus, clapping of hands : these various sounds were connected with the orgiastic worship of Bacchus. — BacchĒi: hiatus.

18. obstrepuere, drowned.
20. etiamnum, even now, in spite of the noise of the Bacchanals.

22. Maenăděs, the name of the female worshippers of Bacchus, from
palveolai, to rave. (See Fig. 51.) – titulum triumphi, the honor of the
triumph; titulum is
in appos. with volu-

Fig. 51. cres, etc., who form the glory of the triumph, i.e. form the procession. — rapu- y ere, tore in pieces.

24. luce, by doylight.

25. structo utrimque theatro, amphitheatre : the Greek term was not

* Mænades. yet introduced into Latin. The space in the middle was spread with sand, hence the term arena.

26. matutina: the fight with beasts took place at Rome in the morning.

28. thyrsos: see note on line 9. — munera, service.
34. operis arma, the tools of their labor.
37. ferae, the wild women.

38. divellēre (also written divulsēre), they tore asunder; for the Bacchic revellers, in their frenzy, used to tear asunder even large animals, and devour their raw fesh.

41. sacrilegae, because they attacked the priest and bard of Apollo. 42. saxis, sensibus, dat. of agent ($ 232, a; G. 354; H. 388, 1). 431.2 45. carmina, sc. tua; object of secutae.


48. carbasa, light garments. - obstrusa pullo, obscured with black. 52. flebile nescio quid queritur, utters some tearful complaint.

54. invectae, agreeing with lyra and lingua; but lingua implies also caput, as the tongue was in the head. —populare, of their native land.

55. Methymnaeae, so called from the city Methymna. Lesbos was afterwards celebrated for its lyric poets, particularly Alcæus and Sappho.

58. tandem: implying that Phoebus should have protected him before.
62. arva piorum, the Elysian fields, the abode of the blessed.
64. modo, now, corresponding to nunc ... nunc.
65. anteit, dissyllabic, -eit being pronounced as one syllable.

67. Lyaeus, an epithet of Bacchus: Bacchus, as well as Apollo, was a patron of poets.

68. sacrorum suorum: Orpheus had introduced these into Thrace. 69. Edonidas = Thracian.

70. vidēre: the infinitive would be vựdēre: it means here participated in.

71. in quantum, so far as, i.e. on the spot to which. — secuta est, sc. Orphea.

72. traxit, sc. in terram.
73. suum agrees with crus.
75. astringit, tightens.
76. harum limits quaeque.
79. pes, etc.: the change begins with the feet, and rises to the head.


XI. 85. ipsos quoque agros, even the very country where Orpheus had been killed.

86. Timoli: Timolus (or Tmolus), a mountain in Lydia, in which the river Pactolus, which flowed through the city of Sardes, takes its rise.

87. aureus: this will be explained by the story now to be related.

88. erat, the indicative with quamvis occurs in poetry and late prose 586. 1.2 (§ 313, & ; G. 606, R.?; H. 515, N.3).

89. satyri: a woodland race, with tails like those of horses, who followed in the train of Bacchus. (See Fig. 52.) The Romans confused the satyrs with Pan and the Italian fauni. (See Fig. 3.) – bacchae, the female worshippers of Bacchus, also called Maenades. (See Fig. 51.)

90. Silenus, the foster-father of Bacchus : he, too, was of the nature of the satyrs. His chief characteristic is drunkenness. (See Fig. 53.)

91. coronis : the ancients, when carousing, wore garlands of flowers.

92. Midan, Midas, a mythical king of Lydia,

Fig. 52. a country which possessed great power in the sixth and seventh centuries B.C., its territory compris. ing the whole western half of Asia Minor. It was conquered by the Persian Cyrus, B.C. 546.

93. Eumolpo, a Thracian singer, whos found a home in Attica

Youthful Satyrs. (called Cecropia, from a very ancient mythical king of Athens, Cecrops). Connect cui cum Cecropio Eumolpo; for Eumolpus was instructed by Orpheus, but did not instruct Midas.

94. simul = simul atque. — sacrorum (neuter), the sacred rites (of Bacchus). 97. coëgerat, had marshalled, as a general mar

Fig. 53 shals his forces preparatory to leading them away. (Cf. Book II. v. 114.)

98. undecimus, the tenth : the ancients, in counting a series, reckoned the one from which the series began, as being the first from itself.

100. gratum and inutile agree with arbitrium, which is limited by optandi muneris.

103. vertatur: after efficere the usual construction has ut, but ut is sometimes omitted ($ 331, Rem.; G. 546, R.); H. 499, 2).

104. solvit, paid, i.e. gave.

105. petisset, subjunctive because quod ... petisset is part of the thought of Bacchus ($ 321; G. 541; H. 516, ii.).

Silenus. 106. Berecyntius : Midas was son of Cybele. 107. polliciti, the promise.

108. non qualifies altā, which agrees with ilice. — fronde virenti, abl. of quality describing ilice.


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114. Hesperidas: the Hesperides, daughters of Atlas, were guardians of a tree with golden apples. (See notes on Book IV. 637, and IX. 190 and 198.)

117. Danaën : Jupiter took the form of a golden rain when he visited Danaë. — eludere, deceive.

118. animo capit, comprehends, or realizes. — fingens, fancying. 120. tostae: in early times the corn was parched before being ground. 124. premebat, spread over; the subject is lamina. 125. auctorem muneris, the giver of the boon, i.e. Bacchus, i.e. wine.

130. torquetur, is tormented. — ab auro: Ovid not infrequently uses ab with the abl. denoting the source from which an action proceeds instead of the simple abl. of means.

131, splendida: even his skin was tinged with gold.
132. Lenaee, an epithet of Bacchus.
133. eripe, sc. me.
134. mite, sc. est.

135. restituit, restored, i.e. to his previous condition. — facti ... sol. vit, in testimony of the act, he annulled (lit. released) the boon he had bestowed. This use of solvere is unusual; solvere munus means bestow a boon(as in v. 104), but a boon already given (data munera) cannot be bestowed, so data munera solvit must mean the very opposite of munera solvit. Some texts read pacti for facti, the boon given in fulfilment of the contract (of v. 100).

137. Sardibus : Sardes was capital of Lydia; it was north of Tmolus. (See note on v. 86.)

138. undis follows obvius.
140. plurimus, in full stream.

141. elue has two objects, corpus and crimen, wash off your body and wash off (i.e. away) your guilt.

144. jam, with veteris. — semine venae, the seed of the vein (of metal), means golden sand, which was found in the Pactolus.

145. auro madidis, steeped with gold.

147. Pana, Pan, a god of nature, represented with the legs, ears, and tail of a goat.

148. pingue, dull; as shown by the absurdity of his request.
149. praecordia mentis = mens.
152. Hypaepis, Hypaepa, a little town, south of Mt. Tmolus.

154. arundine, the syrinx (fistula), or Pan's pipe, was made of reeds joined together with wax. (See Fig. 42.)

156. Tmolo, here the god of the mountain; in apposition with judice. 157. monte, abl. of place in which.

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