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I20

Nec me sollicitae taedia lucis habent,
Gratia, Musa, tibi; nam tu solacia praebes,

Tu curae requies, tu medicina venis;
Tu dux et comes es; tu nos abducis ab Histro,
In medioque mihi das Helicone locum.

120 Tu mihi, quod rarum est, vivo sublime dedisti

Nomen, ab exsequiis quod dare fama solet. Nec qui detrectat praesentia, Livor iniquo

Ullum de nostris dente momordit opus. Nam tulerint magnos cum saecula nostra poëtas, 125

Non fuit ingenio fama maligna meo.
Cumque ego praeponam multos mihi, non minor illis.

Dicor et in toto plurimus orbe legor.
Si quid habent igitur vatum praesagia veri,
Protinus ut moriar, non ero, terra, tuus.

130 Sive favore tuli, sive hanc ego carmine famam

Jure, tibi grates, candide lector, ago.

V. Ex Ponto.

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THE four books Ex Ponto (letters from the Pontus) are addressed to various persons. The character of the poems differs little from that of the Tristia. The example here given is addressed by the poet to his wife.

To His Wife (i. 4).
Jam mihi deterior canis aspergitur aetas,

Jamque meos vultus ruga senilis arat :
Jam vigor et quasso languent in corpore vires;

Nec, juveni lusus qui placuere, juvant.
Nec, si me subito videas, agnoscere possis :

Aetatis facta est tanta ruina meae.
Confiteor facere hoc annos : sed et altera causa est

Anxietas animi continuusque labor.
Nam mea per longos siquis mala digerat annos,

Crede mihi, Pylio Nestore major ero.
Cernis, ut in duris — et quid bove firmius ? — arvis

Fortia taurorum corpora frangat opus.
Quae numquam vacuo solita est cessare novali,

Fructibus assiduis lassa senescit humus.
Occidet, ad circi siquis certamina semper

Non intermissis cursibus ibit equus.
Firma sit illa licet, solvetur in aequore navis,

Quae numquam liquidis sicca carebit aquis,
Me quoque debilitat series immensa malorum,

Ante meum tempus cogit et esse senem.
Otia corpus alunt, animus quoque pascitur illis :

Inmodicus contra carpit utrumque labor.
Aspice, in has partis quod venerit Aesone natus,

Quam laudem a sera posteritate ferat. At labor illius nostro leviorque minorque est, : 25

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Si modo non verum nomina magna premunt. Ille est in Pontum Pelia mittente profectus,

Qui vix Thessaliae fine timendus erat. Caesaris ira mihi nocuit, quem solis ab ortu

Solis ad occasus utraque terra tremit. [Junctior Haemonia est Ponto, quam Roma sit Histro;

Et brevius, quam nos, ille peregit iter.]
Ille habuit comites primos telluris Achivae:

At nostram cuncti destituere fugam.
Nos fragili ligno vastum sulcavimus aequor :

Quae tulit Aesoniden, densa carina fuit.
Nec mihi Tiphys erat rector, nec Agenore natus

Quas fugerem, docuit, quas sequererque vias.
Illum tutata est cum Pallade regia Juno:

Defendere meum numina nulla caput.
Illum furtivae juvere Cupidinis artes;

Quas a me vellem non didicisset Amor.
Ille domum rediit : nos his moriemur in arvis,

Perstiterit laesi si gravis ira dei.
Durius est igitur nostrum, fidissima conjunx,

45 Illo, quod subiit Aesone natus, onus. Te quoque, quam juvenem discedens Urbe reliqui,

Credibile est nostris insenuisse malis.
O! ego, di faciant, talem te cernere possim,
Caraque mutatis oscula ferre comis;

50 Amplectique meis corpus non pingue lacertis,

Et 'gracile hoc fecit' dicere 'cura mei :'
Et narrare meos flenti flens ipse labores,

Sperato numquam conloquioque frui,
Turaque Caesaribus cum conjuge Caesare digna,

Dis veris, memori debita ferre manu!
Memnonis hanc utinam, lenito principe, mater

Quam primum roseo provocet ore diem !

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APPENDIX.

THE CREATION.

[METAMORPHOSES Book I. 1-88.] Proem (1-4). Description of Chaos (5-20). The Creator assigns the elements to their places, and divides the land from the waters: the zones and climates (21-58). The heavens are clear, and living things come forth upon the earth: lastly man, fashioned by Prometheus in the image of the immortals (69-88).

In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
corpora. Di, coeptis (nam vos mutastis et illas)
adspirate meis, primaque ab origine mundi
ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen.

ANTE mare et terras et (quod tegit omnia) caelum,
unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe,
quem dixere Chaos: rudis indigestaque moles,
nec quicquam nisi pondus iners, congestaque eodem
non bene junctarum discordia semina rerum.
nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan,

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nec nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe,
nec circumfuso pendebat in aëre Tellus
ponderibus librata suis, nec bracchia longo
margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite;

quaque fuit tellus, illic et pontus et aër. v. 1. In nova ... corpora : at first sight, corpora mutata in novas formas would seem more natural. But formas and corpora mean nearly the same thing: the forms are changed, and so the bodies are new. - animus, spirit; hence often inclination. fert. impels Smel (a standing expression). - dicere depends on fert animus as an expression of wishing, $ 331. b; G. 423 ; H. 533, 1. 1.

2. coeptis, efforts; lit. things begun. - et, too, belonging with mutastis, for you changed them, too (and should therefore help me to tell of them).

3. mundi, the universe or system of things; a word having the original sense (like the Greek kóomos) of order or beauty.

4. perpetuum carmen, uninterrupted song, a connected story from the beginning of the world to the poet's own day.

6. orbe, sphere of space; more strictly, orbis is a flat disc, which was the ancient poetic notion of the “circle” of being.

7. chaos (cf. Greek xaivw, yawn), the yawning void. - moles, heap, as of elements, or materials, chance-piled together. - nec quicquam, and nothing, the negative and connective being combined as usual.

8. iners, i.e. lacking the skill (ars) to combine them. - eodem, into the same place.

10-14. Titan, Phoebe, Tellus, Amphitrite = Sun, Moon, Earth, Sea. As the chief of the old nature-divinities (Titans) the Sun sometimes retains this name in poetry. The variety of names of the ancient divinities comes from the fact that new sets of gods springing up or introduced from abroad were identified with the old ones.

11. Phoebe (poißn), the bright one, feminine form of Phoebus (A pollo), later identified with Diana (Artemis), goddess of the chase. -- crescendo, in her waxing: reparabat: re- means in place of the old.

12. circumfuso aere: later philosophers taught that the earth is a sphere or globe, surrounded by air, in which it hangs balanced by its own weight - ponderibus librata suis. - Tellus, the Earth as contrasted with the heavens: terra (connected with torreo is the dry" land as contrasted with the sea.

13. longo margine, about the long outline (§ 258. f; G. 389; H. 425, II. 1).

14. Amphitrite: Amphitrite," she that enfolds," the wife of Neptune, is poetically the Sea. Observe that this is a spondaic verse: Amphitritē.

15. quaque, and where (ever).

Sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda,
lucis egens aër: nulli sua forma manebat,
obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno
frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis,
mollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pondus.

Hanc deus et melior litem natura diremit.
nam caelo terras et terris abscidit undas,
et liquidum spisso secrevit ab aëre caelum.
quae postquam evolvit caecoque exemit acervo,
dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit.

Ignea convexi vis et sine pondere caeli
emicuit, summaque locum sibi fecit in arce.
proximus est aër illi levitate locoque;
densior his tellus, elementaque grandia traxit
et pressa est gravitate sua; circumfluus umor
ultima possedit, solidumque coërcuit orbem.

Sic ubi dispositam, quisquis fuit ille deorum,
congeriem secuit, sectamque in membra redegit,
principio terram, ne non aequalis ab omni
parte foret, magni speciem glomeravit in orbis.
tum freta diffudit, rapidisque tumescere ventis
jussit, et ambitae circumdare litora terrae.
addidit et fontes et stagna immensa lacusque,
Auminaque obliquis cinxit declivia ripis,
quae, diversa locis, partim sorbentur ab ipsa,
in mare perveniunt partim, campoque recepta
liberioris aquae pro ripis litora pulsant.

16. sic, so, i.e. in this condition of things. — instabilis, innabilis =" the earth that could not be trod, the wave that could not be swum," the opposite of their most striking properties.

17. nulli, sc. eorum. - sua, its own ($ 196. c; G. 309, 2; H. 449, 2). - manebat, was fired.

18. obstabat aliis aliud = every thing hindered every thing else. 19. calidis, dat. (§ 229. c; G. 346,6; H. 385, II. 4, 3)...

20. sine pondere (understand "with those") = levibus. ~ habentia pondus = gravia, in the same construction with frigida, umentia, mollia.

21. hanc litem, this strife, of which a case at court seemed the most natural image to a Roman: etymologically, strife=stlit- (lis).

23. spisso aere, the grosser air.

24. quae relates to the elements; terras, undas, caelum, aer: when he had unfolded these.

25. locis (§ 253; G. 397 ; H. 424): each element is supposed to have its own place, or natural level.

26. convexi, bending, as if regarded from the outside. Observe the four elements in the order of their gravity: ignea vis, aër, tellus, umor, - vis, nature. -et connects ignea and sine pondere. ---sine pondere= levis, agreeing with caeli.

27. emicuit, leaped forth, as by its nature; perhaps also as if it took the supremacy and occupied the citadel. — summa arce, the zenith (topmost height).

29. grandia, coarser.

32. ubi secuit, when he had parted: the subject is quisquis. — sic dispositam : so arranged (i.e. and had arranged it so)..

34. principio, in the beginning, qualifying glomeravit.
35. speciem ... in=in speciem. - órbis, see note to v. 6.

36. rapidis, not merely swift, but (with active force; cf. rapio) dragging the waters, which swell under them.

39. obliquis, sloping; declivia, down-flowing (clivus).

40. diversa locis : cf. v. 25. — ipsă, sc. terra (v. 37). The ab shows that the Earth is here represented as a living agent.

42. aquae, construed with campo, expanse (the sea). —ripis, litora: notice the contrast, one word meaning banks, the other shores.

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