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or single families settled in scattered plantations, notwithstanding all the care that can possibly be taken by any government for their protection. Sentinels posted round an army, while standing on their guard, with arms in their hands, are often killed and scalped by Indians. How much easier must it be for such an enemy to destroy a ploughman at work in his field!

"2. That the inhabitants of the frontiers of Pennsylvania are not Quakers, were in the beginning of the war supplied with arms and ammunition by the assembly, and have frequently defended themselves and repelled the enemy, being withheld by no principle from fighting; and the losses they have suffered were owing entirely to their situation, and the loose, scattered manner in which they had settled their plantations and families in the woods, remote from each other, in confidence of lasting peace.

"3. That the disputes between the late and present governors and the assembly of Pennsylvania were occasioned and are continued chiefly by New Instructions from the proprietors to those governors, forbidding them to pass any laws to raise money for the defence of the country, unless the proprietary estate, or much the greatest part of it was exempted from the tax to be raised by virtue of such laws, and other clauses inserted in them, by which the privileges long enjoyed by the people, and which they think they have a right to, not only as Pennsylvanians, but as Englishmen, were to be extorted from them, under their present distresses. The Quakers, who, though the first settlers, are now but a small part of the people of Pennsylvania, were concerned in these disputes only as inhabitants of the province, and not as Quakers; and all the other inhabitants join in opposing those instructions, and contending for their rights, the proprietary officers and dependents only excepted, with a few of such as they can influence.

"4. That, though some Quakers have scruples against bearing arms, they have, when most numerous in the assembly, granted large sums for the King's use (as they express it), which have been applied to the defence of the province; for instance, in 1755 and 1756, they granted the sum of fifty-five thousand pounds to be raised by a tax on estates real and personal, and thirty thousand pounds to be raised by excise on spirituous liquors; besides near teu thousand pounds in flour, &c. to General Braddock, and for cutting his roads, and ten thousand pounds to General Shirley in provisions for the New England and New York forces, then on the frontiers of New York; at the same time that the contingent expenses of government, to be otherwise provided for, were greatly

and necessarily enhanced. That, however, to remove all pretence for reflection on their sect, as obstructing military measures in time of war, a number of them voluntarily quitted their seats in assembly in 1756; others requested their friends not to choose them in the ensuing election, nor did any of that profession stand as candidates or request a vote for themselves at that election, many Quakers refusing even to vote at all, and others voting for such men as would and did make a considerable majority in the House, who were not Quakers; and yet four of the Quakers, who were nevertheless chosen, refused to serve, and writs were issued for new elections, when four others, not Quakers, were chosen in their places; so that of thirty-six members, the number of which the House consists, there are not at the most above twelve of that denomination, and those such as are well known to be for supporting the government in defence of the country, but are too few, if they were against such a measure, to prevent it.

"5. That the bill to raise money, said, in the above article of news, to be 'so clogged as to prevent the governor from giving his assent,' was drawn in the same form, and with the same freedom from all clogs, as that for granting sixty thousand pounds, which had been passed by the governor in 1755, and received the royal approbation; that the real clogs or obstructions to its passing were not in the bill, but in the abovementioned proprietary instructions; that the governor having long refused his assent to the bill, did, in excuse of his conduct, on Lord Loudoun's arrival at Philadelphia, in March last, lay his reasons before his Lordship, who was pleased to communicate them to one of the members of the House, and patiently to hear what that member had to say in answer, the governor himself being present; and that his Lordship did finally declare himself fully satisfied with the answers made to those reasons, and give it as his opinion to the governor, that he ought immediately to pass the bill, any instructions he might have to the contrary from the proprietors notwithstanding; which the governor accordingly complied with, passed the bill on the 22d of March, and the money, being one hundred thousand pounds for the service of the current year, has been ever since actually expending in the defence of the province. So that the whole story of the bill's not passing, the clogging of the bill by the assembly, and the obstinacy of the Quakers preventing its passage, is absolutely a malicious and notorious falsehood.

-"6. The assertion of the news-writer, 'that, while the enemy is in the heart of the country, cavils prevent any thing being done

for its relief,' is so far from being true, that, 1st. The enemy is not nor ever was in the heart of the country, having only molested the frontier settlements by their parties. 2dl More is done for the relief and defence of the country, without any assistance from the crown, than is done perhaps by any other colony in America; there having been, soon after the war broke out, the following forts erected at the province expense, in a line to cover the frontier, namely, Henshaw's Fort on Delaware, Fort Hamilton, Fort Norris, Fort Allen, Fort Franklin, Fort Lebanon, Fort William Henry, Fort Augusta, Fort Halifax, Fort Granville, Fort Shirley, Fort Littleton, and Shippensburg Fort, besides several smaller stockades and places of defence, garrisoned by troops in the pay of the province; under whose protection the inhabitants, who at first abandoned their frontier settlements, returned generally to their habitations, and many yet continue, though not without some danger, to cultivate their lands. By these Pennsylvania troops, under Colonel Armstrong, the greatest blow was given to the enemy last year on the Ohio, that they have received during the war, in burning and destroying the Indian town of Kittanning, and killing their great Captain Jacobs, with many other Indians, and recovering a number of captives of their own and the neighbouring provinces. Besides the garrisons in the forts, eleven hundred soldiers are maintained on the frontier in pay, being armed and accoutred, by the province, as ranging companies. And at Philadelphia fifteen iron cannon, eighteen-pounders, were last year purchased in England and added to the fifty they had before, either mounted on their batteries, or ready to be mounted, besides a train of artillery, being new brass field-pieces, twelve and six pounders, with all their appurtenances in extreme good order, and a magazine stored with ammunition, a quantity of large bomb-shells, and above two thousand new small arms lately procured, exclusive of those in the hands of the people. They have likewise this summer fitted out a twenty-gun province ship of war, to scour the coast of privateers, and protect the trade of that and the neighbouring provinces, which is more than any other colony to the southward of New England has done. Penn sylvania also by its situation covers the greatest part of New Jersey, all the government of the Delaware Counties, and great part of Maryland, from the incursions of the Indians, without receiving any contribution from those colonies, or the mother country, towards the expense.

"The above are facts, consistent with the knowledge of the subscriber, who but lately left Philadelphia, is now in London, is not nor ever was a Quaker, nor writes this at the request of any Qua

ker; but purely to do justice to a province and people of late frequently abused in nameless papers and pamphlets published in England. And he hereby calls upon the writer of that article of news to produce the letters out of which, he says, he has drawn those calumnies and falsehoods, or to take the shame to himself. "WILLIAM FRANKLIN.

“Pennsylvania Coffee-House, London,


September 16th, 1757."

To what is said in the foregoing letter, concerning Colonel Armstrong's expedition to Kittanning, it may not be amiss to add, for the information of the reader, that it was with no small difficulty the commissioners, who were joined with the governor in the disposition of the money granted for the war, obtained the employing a part of the provincial forces as rangers. They repeatedly remonstrated to the governor, that the only effectual manner of carrying on a war with Indians was to fight them in their own way, that is, to send parties frequently into the Indian country to surprise them in their hunting and fishing, destroy their cornfields, burn their habitations, and, by thus continually harassing them, oblige them either to sue for peace, or retire farther into the country. The experience of many years' Indian war in New England was in favor of this measure. The governor himself could not but acknowledge its expediency.

There were motives, however, which, with him, outweighed all other considerations, and induced him, though publicly to approve, yet secretly to decline, carrying it into execution. A militia law was the grand object he had in view, in which he aimed to have the sole nomination of all the officers. These were of course to be proprietary minions and dependents, who, by means of their power, were to awe and influence the elections, and make a change in the assembly; for drafts of such as were most likely to give opposition might easily be made and sent to garrison the frontier. Should therefore the commissioners' scheme of carrying the war into the enemy's country be attended with success, and a stop be thereby put to their future incursions, the governor's main pretext for a militia (which was, the enabling him to defend the frontier,) would of consequence have no longer any appearance of weight. The commissioners, notwithstanding, obstinately persevered in urging, that parties should be sent out in the manner they recommended. The governor was at length obliged to consent, and give orders to Colonel Armstrong for that purpose. Underhand measures seem, however, to have been taken to render this project fruitless.

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Such delays were given, from time to time, to the march of the forces, after the intention of the undertaking was publicly known (which by the by was to have been kept a secret), that the enemy might easily have received intelligence of our designs; and, moreover, such a considerable number of men were added to the party, as rendered it highly improbable they should reach the place of their destination undiscovered, upon which depended the whole of their success. By great good luck, they nevertheless unexpectedly arrived at Kittanning and succeeded as above. this fortunate event of their first attempt, the commissioners earnEncouraged by estly pressed that this blow might be followed by another of the same kind, so that the enemy might be kept in continual apprehensions of danger. But these encouragements to the commissioners, to persist in their plan of operations, were inducements with the new governor, as they had been with his predecessor, to evade a compliance.

The darling project of a militia law was of more consequence than the preservation of the blood and treasure of people, with whom he had no natural connexion. And the result is, that, notwithstanding the commissioners have over and over strenuously endeavoured to have parties of rangers sent again into the enemy's country, they have never since been able to prevail with the nor to send them. On the contrary, though they could furnish ten goverparties for one of the Indians, the forces have been confined within the forts, taught regular military discipline (which is in fact undisciplining them for Indian war), and allowed to do scarce any thing but garrison duty. In the mean time the Indians have been suffered to come down between the forts, murder and scalp the inhabitants, and burn and destroy their settlements, with impunity. That a militia, had the governor such a one as he wishes, could not prevent these outrages, is obvious to every man of common understanding. Frequent trials of this have been made in Virginia, and other governments, where militias have been long in use. quence of which was, that, after the governors had, upon the news of any incursions of the enemy, taken the inhabitants from their several businesses and occupations (oftentimes farmers in the midst of harvest), furnished provisions and other necessaries, and marched them, at a great expense, to the place attacked, it was found that the enemy were fled, and perhaps doing mischief in another part of the frontier, at fifty or an hundred miles' distance. The people therefore say with truth, that it would be far less expensive and inconvenient to them, to raise and pay a number of rangers to

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