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day the mutilated snake makes a conspicuous head-piece, running across the page, and accompanied with the same significant motto - EDITOR.

SHORT HINTS

TOWARDS A SCHEME FOR UNITING THE NORTHERN

COLONIES.

A GOVERNOR-GENERAL.

To be appointed by the king.

To be a military man.

To have a salary from the crown.

To have a negation on all acts of the Grand Council, and carry into execution whatever is agreed on by him and that Council.

GRAND COUNCIL.

One member to be chosen by the Assembly of each of the smaller colonies, and two or more by each of the larger, in proportion to the sums they pay yearly into the general treasury.

MEMBERS' PAY.

shillings sterling per diem, during their sitting, and milage for travelling expenses.

PLACE AND TIME OF MEETING.

To meet times in every year, at the capital of each colony, in course, unless particular circumstances and emergencies require more frequent meetings, and alteration in the course of places. The governor-general to judge of those circumstances, &c., and call by his writs.

GENERAL TREASURY.

Its fund, an excise on strong liquors, pretty equally drunk in the colonies, or duty on liquor imported, or

shillings on each license of a public house, or excise on superfluities, as tea, &c. &c. All which would pay in some proportion to the present wealth of each colony, and increase as that wealth increases, and prevent disputes about the inequality of quotas. To be collected in each colony and lodged in their treasury, to be ready for the payment of orders issuing from the governor-general and grand council jointly.

DUTY AND POWER OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND GRAND COUNCIL.

To order all Indian treaties. Make all Indian purchases not within proprietary grants. Make and support new settlements, by building forts, raising and paying soldiers to garrison the forts, defend the frontiers, and annoy the enemy. Equip guard-vessels to scour the coasts from privateers in time of war, and protect the trade, and every thing that shall be found necessary for the defence and support of the colonies in general, and increasing and extending their settlements, &c.

For the expense, they may draw on the fund in the treasury of any colony.

MANNER OF FORMING THIS UNION.

The scheme, being first well considered, corrected, and improved by the commissioners at Albany, to be sent home, and an act of Parliament obtained for establishing it.*

This paper was communicated to James Alexander, with the following note.

"New York, June 8th, 1754. "Mr. Alexander is requested to peruse these Hints, and make remarks in correcting or improving the scheme, and send the paper with such remarks to Dr. Colden for his sentiments, who is desired to forward the whole to Albany, to their very humble servant,

"B. FRANKLIN."

LETTER FROM JAMES ALEXANDER TO CADWALLADER
COLDEN, RESPECTING THE ABOVE HINTS.
New York, [June] 9th, 1754.

DEAR SIR,

*

I had some conversation with Mr. Franklin and Mr. Peters, as to the uniting the colonies, and the difficulties thereof, by effecting our liberties on the one hand, or being ineffectual on the other. Whereon Mr. Franklin promised to set down some hints of a scheme that he thought might do, which accordingly he sent to me to be transmitted to you, and it is enclosed.

To me, it seems extremely well digested, and at first sight avoids many difficulties that had occurred

to me.

Some difficulties still remain. For example, there cannot be found men tolerably well skilled in warlike affairs to be chosen for the grand council, and there is danger in communicating to them the schemes to be put in execution, for fear of a discovery to the enemy.

* Mr. Peters was one of the delegates to the Albany Convention from Pennsylvania. The following is a list of all the delegates.

NEW-YORK.
James Delancey,

Joseph Murray,
William Johnson,
John Chambers,

William Smith.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Theodore Atkinson,
Richard Wibird,
Meshech Weare,
Henry Sherburne.

MASSACHUSETTS.

Samuel Welles,
John Chandler
Thomas Hutchinson,

Oliver Partridge,

John Worthington.

CONNECTICUT.

William Pitkin,

Roger Wolcott,

Elisha Williams.

RHODE ISLAND.

Stephen Hopkins,
Martin Howard.

PENNSYLVANIA.

John Penn,
Richard Peters,

Isaac Norris,

Benjamin Franklin.

MARYLAND.

Benjamin Tasker,
Abraham Barnes.

Whether this may not be in some measure remedied by a council of state, of a few persons to be chosen by the grand council at their stated meetings, which council of state to be always attending the governorgeneral, and with him to digest beforehand all matters to be laid before the next grand council, and only the general, but not the particular, plans of operation.

That the governor-general and that council of state issue orders for the payment of moneys, so far as the grand council have beforehand agreed may be issued for any general plan to be executed. That the governor-general and council of state, at every meeting of the grand council, lay before them their accounts and transactions since the last meeting, at least so much of their transactions as is safe to be made public. This council of state to be something like that of the United Provinces, and the grand council to resemble the States-General.

That the capacity and ability of the persons to be chosen of the council of state and grand council be their only qualifications, whether members of the respective bodies that choose them or not. That the grand council, with the governor-general, have power to increase, but not to decrease, the duties laid by act of Parliament, and have power to issue bills of credit on emergencies, to be sunk by the increased funds, bearing a small interest, but not to be tenders. I am, dear Sir,

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REMARKS ON THE HINTS FOR A SCHEME OF UNION, BY CADWALLADER COLDEN.

GOVERNOR-GENERAL.

It seems agreed on all hands that something is necessary to be done for uniting the colonies in their mutual defence, and it seems to be likewise agreed that it can only be done effectually by act of Parliament. For this reason I suppose that the necessary funds for carrying it into execution, in pursuance of the ends proposed by it, cannot be otherwise obtained. If it were thought, that the Assemblies of the several colonies may agree to lay the same duties, and apply them to the general defence and security of all the colonies, no need of an act of Parliament.

Quære; Which best for the colonies; by Parliament, or by the several Assemblies?

The King's ministers, so long since as the year 1723, or 1724, had thoughts of sending over a governorgeneral of all the colonies, and the Earl of Stair was proposed as a fit person. It is probable, the want of a suitable support of the dignity of that office prevented that scheme's being carried into execution, and that the ministry and people of England think that this charge ought to be borne by the colonies.

GRAND COUNCIL.

Quære; Is the grand council, with the governorgeneral, to have a legislative authority? If only an executive power, objections may be made to their being elective. It would be in a great measure a change of the constitution, to which I suspect the crown will not consent. We see the inconveniences attending the present constitution, and remedies may be found

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