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and always compare your game with your adversary's, and discard accordingly.
2. Always discard with the view of winning the cards; for this is so essential a part of the game, that it generally makes twenty-two or twenty-three points difference; you are, therefore, not to discard for low qua. torze, such as three queens, three knaves, or three tens, because in any of these cases the odds are three to one, elder hand, that you do not succeed, and seventeen to three, younger hand; for supposing you should go for a quatorze of queens, knaves, or tens, and throw out an ace or a king, by so doing, you run the risk of losing above twenty points, in expectation of winning fourteen points.
3. At the beginning of a party, always play to make your game, which is twenty-seven points elder hand, and ihirteen points younger hand: therefore, if you are elder hand, and have a tierce-major, and the seven of any suit, it is five to two but you take in one card out of any four certain cards: therefore, suppose you should have three queens, three knaves, or three feps, you are in this case to discard one of them, in preference to the seven of such a suit; because it is three to one that you do not take in any one certain card, elder hand, to make you a quatorze, consequently you discard the seven of such a suit to a great advantage.
4. If your adversary should be very much before you in the game, the consideration of winning the cards must ne put entirely out of the question ; therefore, suppose you should have a quart to a queen, or a quart to a knave; in which case it is only about five to four, being elder hand, but that you take in a card to inake you a quint, and about three to one but that you take in a queen, a knave, or ten ;, and if you should have three of either dealt you, it is good play to make a push for the game, particularly if it is so far advanced as to give you but little chance for it in ano:her deal; and in this and other cases, you may have recourse to the calcula. tions ascertaining the odds. .
5. As gaining the point generally makes two points difference; when you discard vou should endeavour to gain it, but not risk the losing of the cards by so doing.
6. It is so material to save the lurch, or to lurch your adversary, that you ought always to risk some points in order to accomplish either of them.
7. When you have six tricks with any winning card in your hand, be sure to play that card; because you play, at least, eleven points to one against yourself, by not doing so.
8. When you are considerably advanced in the game (suppose, for example, you are eighty to fifty,) it is your interest to let your adversary gain two points to your one as often as you can, particularly if you are elder hand the next deal: but if, on the contrary, you are to be younger hand, and are eighty-six to fifty or sixty, never regard the losing two or three points for the gaining of one, because that point brings you within your show.
9. The younger hand plays upon the defensive; therefore, in order to make his thirteen points, he is to carry tierces, quarts, and especially to strive for the point: but suppose him to have two tierces, from a king, queen, or knave, as it is twenty nine to twenty-eight that he succeeds, he having in that case four certain cards to take in to make him a quart to either of them, and, perhaps thereby save a pique, &c. he ought preferably to go for that which he has the most chance to succeed in: but if instead of this method of play, he has three queens, knaves, or tens, and should attempt to carry any of them preferable to the others, the odds that he does succeed being seventeen to three against him, he consequently discards to a great advantage.
10. Sometimes the elder or younger hand may sink one of his points (a tierce of three kings, queens, knaves, or tens) with the view of winning the cards; but this must be done with great judgment.
11. Sometimes it is good play for a younger hand not to call three queens, knaves, &c and to sink one card of his point which his adversary may suppose to be a goard to a king or queen.
12. When the younger hand has a chance of saving or winning the cards by a deep discard; as, for example, suppose he should have the king, queen, and nine of a suit; or the king, knave, and nine of a suit; he may discard either of those suits, with a moral certainty of not being attacked in them; and the odds that he does take in the ace of either of those suits being against him, it is not worth bis while to discard other. wise in expectation of succeeding.
13. When the younger hand has three aces dealt him, it is generally best for him to throw out the fourth suit
14. The younger hand should generally carry guard to his queen suits, in order to make points, and save the cards.
15. If the younger hand observes that the elder hand by calling his point, has five cards, which will make five tricks in play, and may have the ace and queen of another suit, he should throw away the guard to that king, especially if he has put out one of thar suit, which will give him an even chance of saving the cards.
16. If the elder hand has a quart to a king dealt him, with three kings, and three queens, including the king to his quart, and is obliged to discard either one of his quart to the king, or to discard a king or queen, which is best for him to discard? The chance for taking in the ace or nine to his quart to a king, being, one out of two certain cards, is exactly equal to the taking either a king or a queen, having three of each dealt him : he is there. fore, to discard in such a manner as gives hin the fairest opportunity of winning the cards This case may be a general direction to discard in all similar cases, ei. ther for elder or younger hand.
17. If the elder hand has taken in his five cards, and has the ace, king, and knave of a suit, having discarded two of that suit: if he has also the ace, king, knave, and two small cards of another suit, but no winning cards in the other suits, which of these suits should he play from, in order to have the fairest chance of winning or saving the cards? He is always to play from the suit of which he has the fewest in number; because if he finds his adversary guarded there, the probability is in his favour that he is unguarded in his other suits; and should he play from the suit of which he has the most in number, and finds his adversary's queen guarded, in that case, he has no chance to save or win the cards.
18. When the elder hand is sure to make the cards equal, by playing of them in any particular manner, and is advanced before his adversary in the game, he must not risk the losing of them; but provided the adversary is greatly before him, in that case it is his interest to risk the losing of the cards, in endeavouring to win them. Calculations, illustrative of the best Method of discard.
ing any hand well. 1. The chance of an elder hand's taking in one certain card, is 3 to 1 against him.
2. That of his taking in two certain cards, is 18 to 1 against him.
3. What are the odds that an elder hand takes in four aces?
bim. For him. That he takes in four aces, is .. . 986 to 1, . . . . . . 3 aces, about. . . 33 10 1. . . . . . . 2 aces, . . . . . 315 1. .. .
. . 1 ace, . . . . . . 2 10 5. 4. If an elder hand has one ace dealt him, what are the odds that he takes in the other three?
Agst. him. For him. That he takes in the 3 aces, . .. 113 to 1. . . . . . . . 2 aces, . . . .
6 to . . . . . . . lace, . . . . 2 to 3.
5. Ifan elder hand has two aces dealt him, what are the odds that he takes in the other two?
Agst. him. For him. That be takes in the other to aces is . . 18 to 1. At least ne if them, is near 5 to 4 ) 21 to 17.
a,ainst him, or . . . . . 6. If an elder hand has two aces and two kings dealt him, what are the odds that he takes in two aces or two kings remaining ?
Agst. him. For him. It is about .
17 to 2. 7. If the elder hand has neither ace nor king dealt him, what is his chance to take in both an ace and a king in 2, 3, 4, or 5 cards?
Agst. him. For him. In 2 cards, it is about ..... 11 to 1. . In 3 cards, . . . . . . . . . . 4 to 1.
9 to 5. In 5 cards, . . . . . . . . . . 33 to 51.
8. That a younger hand takes in two certain cards, is 62 10 1 against hiin.
9. That a younger hand takes in three certain cards, is 1139 to 1 against him.
10. The younger band having no ace dealt him, the chance of his taking one is 28 to 29 for him.
In 4 cards,
11. If the younger hand has one ace dealt him, are the odds of his taking in one or two of the thre maining aces?
Agst. him. For him. That he takes in two of them is about . .21 to 1. At least one of them . . . 3 to 2.
12. The odds that the younger hand takes in one certain card is 17 to 1 against him.
13. The odds of a carte blanche are 1791 to 1 against
Computations for laying wagers.
2. That the elder hand does not lurch the younger band is about 2 to 1.
3. That the younger band does not lurch the elder hand is near 4 to 1.
4. Suppose A and B make a party at piquet. A bas the hand: what are the odds ihat A wins the party? About 23 to 20.
5. If A has one game, and B one game, he who is eldest band has about 5 to 4 to win the party.
6. If A has two games love before they cut for the deal, the odds are about 4 10 1 that he wins the party.
7. If A has two gaines love, and has the hand, the odds are about 5 to 1 that he wins the party.
8. If B has the hand when A is two love, the odds in favour of A are about 37 1.2 to 1.
9. If A has two games, and B one, before they cut, the odds in favour of A are about 2 to 1.
10. If A has the hand, and two games to one, the odds are about 11 to 4.
11. If B has the hand when A is two games to one, the odds in favour of A are about 9 10 5.
12. If A is one game love, and elder hand, the odds in favour of A are about 17 to 7.
13. If A has one game love, and younger hand, the odds in favour of A are about 2 to 1.